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 L'échiquier vert (©Oleo) - Questions sur les règles du jeu

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MessageSujet: Re: L'échiquier vert (©Oleo) - Questions sur les règles du jeu   Dim 24 Sep - 14:59

En fait des que y'a contact. Juste comme ca t'es sur d'autres forums NFL ?
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MessageSujet: Re: L'échiquier vert (©Oleo) - Questions sur les règles du jeu   Dim 24 Sep - 15:04

Tu peux aussi faire un PM pour savoir ça. J'suis pas certain que ça intéresse tout le monde.

Je suis sur le Forum des Devils de Cenon et le Forum de l'Eglise de la Conscience Inconsciente... Voulez-vous faire une donation ?

Laisse-tomber pour le dernier forum, je ne te sens pas dans le même playbook pour ce qui est des vannes.

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MessageSujet: Re: L'échiquier vert (©Oleo) - Questions sur les règles du jeu   Lun 25 Sep - 9:16

L'effort est à souligner mais en fait, le titre "Question et règles" s'applique surtout pour la partie technique du forum. La FAQ, quoi.

Pour débattre et questionner sur les règles du foot US, y'a un (excellent) topic en section générale qui s'appelle "L'échiquier Vert".


Des fois, je me demande qui t'a nommé modo, Ju.

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MessageSujet: Re: L'échiquier vert (©Oleo) - Questions sur les règles du jeu   Jeu 28 Sep - 11:03

Citation :
Ask Jerry Markbreit
The former NFL referee answers reader questions every week during the NFL season

September 26, 2006, 4:36 PM CDT

What exactly is an Illegal snap? The Bears were flagged more than once and I don't believe I have ever heard that one called on them before. --Glenn, Traverse City, Mich

The snapper may not move his feet or hands abruptly from the start of the snap until the ball has left his hands. He also may not quickly snap the ball if the officials have not had a reasonable time to assume their normal stances. The snapper also may not slide his hand across the ball or lift the ball off the ground in an attempt to deceive the defensive team into committing a foul. This penalty infraction will be announced by the referee as a false start on the center for an "illegal snap."

Please put the fiasco at the end of the Cardinal-Rams game in focus. Can a team change its decision after it has been acted on? Do the officials normally play "final answer" with coaches to help them make a decision to decline or accept penalities? The ignorance of the rules should not have cost the Cardinal's Neil Rackers a shot at attempting a free kick. What is the official ruling on the game ending with a penalty on the defensive team? --Larry Manion, Phoenix, Ariz.

In the game that you mention, there was a defensive offside on the last play of the game, which was a punt. The receiving team signaled for and completed a fair catch. This entitled them by rule to a free kick after fair catch in an untimed down. However, the only way that they could get this free kick is if the penalty were declined by the kicking team.

The wrong decisions were given to the officials, but were corrected and the play was properly handled with the kicking team accepting the penalty, thus giving them an untimed down, which ended the game.

An offensive foul on the last play of the game or of the half ends that half and any score that is made on that play is negated by rule.

Is the 15- versus the 5-yard variety of face mask more dependent on the intention or the perceived severity of the possible harm to the player affected? --Hal, Houston

Here's the rule: No player shall grasp the face mask of an opponent. Incidental grasping of the mask is a five-yard penalty and is not an automatic first down. This foul would be called when the mask of the ball carrier is grasped and immediately let go by the defender. Twisting, turning or pulling the mask is a personal foul, carrying a 15-yard penalty and an automatic first down. The question of intentional or accidental has no bearing on this rule.

Can a player fake call for a time out? If their hands don't actually touch to make a "T", does play stop? Could a player fake a timeout, head to the sideline, and then the ball could be snapped? --Clinton Casso, Los Angeles

First of all, the "T" signal is not a signal used in the National Football League. A player has to verbally request a timeout, at which time the official will acknowledge, with the timeout signal, by crossing his hands above his head, which you have seen many times. A player cannot fake a timeout by heading toward the sideline or at any other time. Using an entering substitute or a player leaving the field to confuse opponents is an unsportsmanlike conduct foul.
[ça n'avait pas empeché les Rams de Warner de marquer un TD dans des conditions similaires contre les 49ers il y a 4 ou 5 ans.]

I heard about a new rule prohibiting the defense from tackling the quarterback low. The TV commentators called it the Carson Palmer rule. Can you explain this new rule? --Matt, Chicago

A rushing defender is prohibited from forcibly hitting in the knee area or below a passer who has one or both feet on the ground, even if the initial contact is above the knee. It is not a foul if the defender is blocked or fouled into the passer and has no opportunity to avoid him.

I've noticed officials making a rolling motion with their hands over their heads just before fourth down plays. What is the meaning of this and for whom is it intended? --Doug, Brighton, Mich.

This rolling motion signal is used by the officials to remind each other that the fourth-down fumble rule, and last two-minute fumble rule is in effect at the next snap. If a fumble occurs by the offensive team on a fourth down play, a try-for-point or during the last two minutes of either half, only the fumbler may recover the ball and advance.

If a teammate recovers in advance of the spot of the fumble, the ball is returned to the fumble spot with the offensive team retaining possession. If it is recovered by a teammate behind the spot, the ball remains there. This fumble rule was put into effect for the 1979 NFL season. The reason for this rule is another story for another column. But you could ask me about it.

Can a team insert the second-string quarterback only to bring the starter back should the team need him later in the game? --Jonathan, Chicago

A team may use their second-string quarterback at any time during the game and then return the first-string quarterback. I think the restriction that you are referring to is the third quarterback. Before each game, a team can declare a third quarterback, which most teams do. If he is used during the first three quarters of the game, the team cannot play either the first-or second-string quarterback. If the third quarterback is used in the fourth quarter, the other quarterbacks may still be used.

I know that if a ball is fumbled into the end zone, it is called a touchback. If the ball hits in the end zone and lands on the one yard line, is it still considered a touchback, or does the recovering team start at the one-yard line? --Lindsay, Forest Lake, Minn.

Under NFL rules, if a ball touches the ground in the end zone, untouched by a receiver, the ball is declared dead immediately and the receivers are rewarded a touchback, giving them the ball on the 20-yard line. In your play, once the ball hits in the end zone and bounces out to the one-yard line, it is still dead by rule and a touchback awarded.

This is more of a fun question, rather than a serious one. Let's say a punt rolled toward the end zone sideways. A defender downs the ball just as the ball gets to the line. Technically, the forward point of the ball is where the point of the ball should be spotted, but if done so, the back side of the ball would be into the end zone. Is there a rule covering this? --Vince Weaver, Elkhart, Ind.

When a play is over, the position of the ball, whether it's sideways or not, is considered the end of the play. When the ball is set up for the next play, it is rotated so that the points of the ball are facing each goal line, but, in reality, the point of the ball is where the side of the ball was when the play ended.

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MessageSujet: Re: L'échiquier vert (©Oleo) - Questions sur les règles du jeu   Jeu 28 Sep - 11:46

Double C a écrit:

First of all, the "T" signal is not a signal used in the National Football League. A player has to verbally request a timeout, at which time the official will acknowledge, with the timeout signal, by crossing his hands above his head, which you have seen many times. A player cannot fake a timeout by heading toward the sideline or at any other time. Using an entering substitute or a player leaving the field to confuse opponents is an unsportsmanlike conduct foul.
[ça n'avait pas empeché les Rams de Warner de marquer un TD dans des conditions similaires contre les 49ers il y a 4 ou 5 ans.]

Oui mais Warner n'avait pas fait de signe expllicite pour demander un temps-mort. Il se contentait d'aller vers la touche, la mine défaite. Il n'a pas demandé verbalement un temps-mort (ce qui est la règle) ni fait de geste manifeste. Bien sûr, il marche vers la touche, mais à la limite, c'est une "motion" D'ailleurs, j'avais jamais eu confirmation que cette action était bel et bien une feinte prévue ou si Warner pensait vraiment aller sur la touche et que Marshall Faulk a demandé le snap en voyant la défense se relâcher complètement. C'était sans doute prévu, mais je suis sûr que cela pourrait s'improviser.


Enfin, les Bengals fans qui avaient juré la mort de Kimo feraient bien de méditer la "Carson Palmer rule"
Citation :
A rushing defender is prohibited from forcibly hitting in the knee area or below a passer who has one or both feet on the ground, even if the initial contact is above the knee. It is not a foul if the defender is blocked or fouled into the passer and has no opportunity to avoid him.
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MessageSujet: Re: L'échiquier vert (©Oleo) - Questions sur les règles du jeu   Jeu 28 Sep - 15:36

Busforever a écrit:
Double C a écrit:

First of all, the "T" signal is not a signal used in the National Football League. A player has to verbally request a timeout, at which time the official will acknowledge, with the timeout signal, by crossing his hands above his head, which you have seen many times. A player cannot fake a timeout by heading toward the sideline or at any other time. Using an entering substitute or a player leaving the field to confuse opponents is an unsportsmanlike conduct foul.
[ça n'avait pas empeché les Rams de Warner de marquer un TD dans des conditions similaires contre les 49ers il y a 4 ou 5 ans.]

Oui mais Warner n'avait pas fait de signe expllicite pour demander un temps-mort. Il se contentait d'aller vers la touche, la mine défaite. Il n'a pas demandé verbalement un temps-mort (ce qui est la règle) ni fait de geste manifeste. Bien sûr, il marche vers la touche, mais à la limite, c'est une "motion" D'ailleurs, j'avais jamais eu confirmation que cette action était bel et bien une feinte prévue ou si Warner pensait vraiment aller sur la touche et que Marshall Faulk a demandé le snap en voyant la défense se relâcher complètement. C'était sans doute prévu, mais je suis sûr que cela pourrait s'improviser.
C'est pas un peu la même chose?

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MessageSujet: Re: L'échiquier vert (©Oleo) - Questions sur les règles du jeu   Jeu 28 Sep - 16:22

Double C a écrit:
Busforever a écrit:
Double C a écrit:

First of all, the "T" signal is not a signal used in the National Football League. A player has to verbally request a timeout, at which time the official will acknowledge, with the timeout signal, by crossing his hands above his head, which you have seen many times. A player cannot fake a timeout by heading toward the sideline or at any other time. Using an entering substitute or a player leaving the field to confuse opponents is an unsportsmanlike conduct foul.
[ça n'avait pas empeché les Rams de Warner de marquer un TD dans des conditions similaires contre les 49ers il y a 4 ou 5 ans.]

Oui mais Warner n'avait pas fait de signe expllicite pour demander un temps-mort. Il se contentait d'aller vers la touche, la mine défaite. Il n'a pas demandé verbalement un temps-mort (ce qui est la règle) ni fait de geste manifeste. Bien sûr, il marche vers la touche, mais à la limite, c'est une "motion" D'ailleurs, j'avais jamais eu confirmation que cette action était bel et bien une feinte prévue ou si Warner pensait vraiment aller sur la touche et que Marshall Faulk a demandé le snap en voyant la défense se relâcher complètement. C'était sans doute prévu, mais je suis sûr que cela pourrait s'improviser.
C'est pas un peu la même chose?

Hum... mfff... pas contre les 49ers Very Happy
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MessageSujet: Re: L'échiquier vert (©Oleo) - Questions sur les règles du jeu   Jeu 28 Sep - 17:14

Bulger a fait la même chose y'a 2 saisons il me semble contre les Patriots. Les pats venaient de marquer sur une passe de Vinatieri sur Troy Brown (qui faisait mine de sortir pour laisser l'équipe spéciale taper... Martz avait du se sentir blessé, alors lors du drive de St Louis, Bulger a simuler la même chose, snap direct sur Faulk qui gagna la bagatelle de... 4 yards
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MessageSujet: Re: L'échiquier vert (©Oleo) - Questions sur les règles du jeu   Jeu 5 Oct - 10:54

Citation :
Ask Jerry Markbreit
The former NFL referee answers reader questions every week during the season

October 3, 2006, 4:40 PM CDT

Jerry, I have noticed a few new head referees this season. Who are the new ones and whom did they replace? --Pete Walker, Chicago

You are correct. There are two new head referees for the 2006 Season, Jerome Boger and Gene Steratore. They replaced the retired Tommy White and Bernie Kukar. Both Tommy and Bernie have had very successful careers with the National Football League. It's nice to know that you are interested in the head referees and are aware of changes made in personnel.

In your last column you wrote about the two-minute and fourth-down fumble rule and said, "The reason for this rule is another story for another column. But you could ask me about it." OK, I'll ask. This seems like an odd rule to me, please explain. --Josh, San Diego

The reason for this fumble rule is to prevent a player from intentionally fumbling the ball forward in an attempt to avoid a loss of yardage or in an attempt to gain yardage. This rule prevents any unfair act that might result in an unfair advantage for a given team.

In the Week 2 Cowboys-Redskins game, there was a holding call against Washington OT Jon Jansen, but the flag was waved off because it was ruled DE Greg Ellis "ran through the hold." This is the first time I have ever heard such a thing in my 30 years of watching NFL football. Can you explain this ruling? --Rob, Charlotte, N.C.

Here's the rule pertaining to offensive holding in the NFL: "An offensive blocker may not use his hands or arms to materially restrict an opponent or alter the defender's path or angle of pursuit. Material restrictions include: grabbing or tackling an opponent; hooking, jerking, twisting, or turning him or pulling him to the ground." All of these situations have to have a definite impact on the play in order to be a foul. In the play that you describe, the fact that the defender ran through the attempted hold is the reason that the flag was picked up. This action had no material effect on the play.

When the Jets onside kicked vs. the Colts this weekend, the right footed kicker approached the ball from the left, and when he kicked the ball, at least half his body was across the line of scrimmage. Can the kicker not be considered offside on a kickoff? --Vince Weaver, Elkhart, Ind.

A player is offside when any part of his body or his person is beyond his scrimmage line, free kick line, or fair catch kick line when the ball is put in play. There are, however, some exceptions to this rule.
  • The snapper may be beyond his line provided his is not beyond the defensive line.
  • The holder of a place kick for a free kick may be beyond the free-kick line.
  • The holder of a fair-catch kick may be beyond the fair -catch kick line.
  • The kicker may be beyond the line but his kicking foot may not be beyond the line on a free kick.

I know I have answered more than you asked, but I thought I would give you all situations pertaining to offside.

During the Jacksonville-Redskins game, the Washington receiver stepped out of bounds before coming back into the field of play and catching a pass. The officials called an illegal touching penalty. However, the announcers said, "If he was forced out of bounds and re-established himself in the field of play, he could have been the first player to touch the ball." What is required for a player to establish themselves in the field of play? --Steven Kut, Bartlett, Ill.

It is a foul for illegal touching if a forward pass, either legal or illegal, first touches or is caught by an eligible receiver who had gone out of bounds on his own or had been legally forced out. This player must, however, re-establish himself in the field by getting both feet down inbounds before touching the ball. If an eligible receiver is pushed out of bounds within the first five yards, he must not touch the ball until it has touched someone who is eligible or it is a foul for illegal touching. If he is pushed out beyond the five-yard zone, it is a foul by the defense for illegal contact and the player is eligible once he re-establishes.

The commentators on college games have been mentioning the new timing rules that are meant to speed up the game. They seem to be saying that on a first down the clock is stopped but then restarted when the officials mark the ball ready for play. I thought that was already the rule. What changed? --Phil, Wheaton, Ill.

You are correct. The college rule stopping the clock on all first downs when the clock is running and then restarting on the referee's ready-for-play signal is an old rule and has not been changed. The new rule is as follows: Whenever there is a change of possession, a punt, a kickoff, a pass interception or a fumble recovery, the clock is stopped according to rule. But when the referee gives his ready-for-play signal, the clock is started. This is a major change in the timing rule for college football and has resulted in faster games being played.

Jerry, why does the NFL have two sets of chains on the field? --Ron Sybert, Joplin, Mo.

The two sets of chains mirror each other and give the players the approximate distance to a first down, regardless of which side of the field they are looking at. The chains on the head linesman's side are the official markers, but the chains on the opposite side of the field chains are generally very close to the head linesman's chains.

Is the spot of the ball still a challengable call? --Rusty, Bonita Springs, Fla.

The spot of the ball or, in football terms, forward progress, is only challengable when the progress point involves a possible score or a possible first down. Any other time a coach feels that the spot is incorrect, he cannot challenge under the current replay system in the National Football League.

During the Sunday's game between Dallas and Tennessee, the TV analyst pointed out that the Cowboys had a cooling device that pumped cold air under the pads of the players as they sat on the bench. He also noted that the Titans did not have such a device and their players seemed more fatigued as a result. It was my understanding that both teams in a contest had be equipped identically as not to create an unfair advantage for one team. Usually this falls on the home team to make sure the heated benches, cooling fans, locker room facilities, video replay and other equipment is provided evenly. Why is the visiting team allowed to bring a specialized piece of equipment like this? Does this not create an unfair advantage? Is the visiting teams budget the only limiting factor in having something the other team does not? --Marty C., Frankfort, Ill.

The use of heated benches, cooling fans, and other aids such as these are strictly up to the teams that are playing. Some teams in extremely cold weather do not have heated benches in order to keep their players accustomed to the bitter cold weather while the other team enjoys sitting on a warm seat. I don't think this is a financial situation, but strictly something that the teams individually wish to do.

Jerry, I was watching the Penn State-Northwestern game on Saturday when Penn State recovered a fumble and returned it for a touchdown. They were then flagged for excessive celebration. After review, the play was overturned and called an incomplete pass. However the referee still enforced the excessive celebration penalty and the 15 yards that goes with it. Why isn't the play dead once they rule it incomplete and everything after it is void? Would the defense be penalized in the same way if they had a block in the back on the return of a play that was overturned? --Greg Blecharczyk, Chicago

All 15-yard penalties must be enforced, regardless of whether a play is reversed or not. This excessive celebration violated the unsportsmanlike conduct rule of the game and even though the play was ruled incomplete instead of a touchdown, the penalty was and should have been enforced. Any foul less than 15 yards, like a block in the back, would be disregarded and not enforced.

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MessageSujet: Re: L'échiquier vert (©Oleo) - Questions sur les règles du jeu   Jeu 5 Oct - 11:20

Bernie Kukar a pris sa retraite! affraid

Je me souviens avoir vu les nouveaux arbitres en 1ère semaine. C'était durant le match Jets-Titans, a priori l'une des plus faibles affiches de la semaine... Rolling Eyes
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MessageSujet: Re: L'échiquier vert (©Oleo) - Questions sur les règles du jeu   Jeu 5 Oct - 12:19

Busforever a écrit:
Bernie Kukar a pris sa retraite! affraid
Tant qu'Ed Hochuli officiera, tout ira pour le mieux dans le meilleur des mondes.

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MessageSujet: Re: L'échiquier vert (©Oleo) - Questions sur les règles du jeu   Lun 9 Oct - 10:03

Citation :
NFL gives clarification on no-huddle rule
colts notebook
By Mike Chappell
mike.chappell@indystar.com
October 6, 2006


Normalcy has been returned to the no-huddle offense. Choose to substitute, and the defense gets a similar opportunity.

That became an issue in the Indianapolis Colts' 31-28 win over the New York Jets last Sunday. Jets quarterback Chad Pennington directed a no-huddle attack, and on a few occasions the Jets substituted personnel. But instead of giving the Colts an opportunity to switch defensive personnel, Pennington picked up his pace, forcing the Colts to call a timeout.
That, Tony Dungy said, was counter to the spirit of the rule.

The Colts coach acknowledged that more than a decade ago, a portion of the rulebook dealing with the no-huddle offense was rewritten, technically allowing the Jets' maneuver. On Wednesday, though, Mike Pereira, the NFL's vice president of officiating, sent all teams a videotape and memo informing them the spirit of the rule will be enforced from here on out.

If an offense substitutes, then tries to catch the defense with too many players on the field while it is trying to sub, the play will be voided and the offense will be warned. Do it again, and the offense would draw an unsportsmanlike conduct penalty.

"In a nutshell, for the last 20 years when you substituted, you weren't supposed to be able to go fast," Dungy said. "And in a nutshell, that's what they're saying now.''

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MessageSujet: Re: L'échiquier vert (©Oleo) - Questions sur les règles du jeu   Jeu 12 Oct - 8:20

Citation :
Ask Jerry Markbreit
The former NFL referee answers reader questions every week during the season

October 11, 2006, 11:46 AM CDT

Jerry, this season seems to have an inordinate number of gametime decisions. Is there a rule or deadline for teams to declare its inactives? --Kevin Mitchell, Jacksonville, Fla.

During the week, teams must disclose on a league injury report all injuries and the possibility of players playing or not. The final decision is made three hours prior to kickoff. This deactivation list is then presented to the opposing team. So you can see that the teams actually have plenty of time to make the final decision on who plays and who doesn't.

In watching game films from the 1950s and '60s, it appears the play was not over until the ball carrier was down with a man on top of him. How has the ruling changed over the years to determine when a play is over? When did the current knee-touching-the-ground ruling come into play? --Steven Souza, San Leandro, Calif.

The current rule states, "When a runner is contacted by a defensive player and he touches the ground with any part of his body, except his hands or feet, the ball shall be declared dead immediately and the play is over." This is called down by contact. If a player goes to the ground untouched by a defender, he may get up and run and the play continues. This current rule was put into effect in the late 1960s.

In years preceding the rules change, even if a runner was down by contact, he could get up and run and the play would continue, unless the defenders made sure that he could not get up. Obviously, there were many injuries caused by this old rule, which is the reason for the current down-by-contact rule.

Jerry, a team has 12 men on the field. Before the play starts the extra player runs off the field, but to the opposing team's side of the field. Is it legal? --Bryan Hutton, Sugar Land, Texas

Substitutes may not enter the field while the ball is in play. Any entering offensive substitute must enter while the ball is dead and move onto the field as far as the inside of the field numerals. The player or players replaced must have cleared the field on their own side and between the end lines prior to the snap or free kick. The penalty for leaving on the wrong side of the field or end zone is five yards for illegal substitution. Now, after that long explanation, the answer to your question is, no.

The two-minute and fourth-down fumble rule came about because of the famous "Holy Roller" game between Oakland and San Diego that you officiated. What was going though you mind as the play was unfolding? Can you tell us the story behind this game and ruling? --Patrick Flynn, Amherst, Mass

With 31 seconds remaining in the game and Oakland trailing by six points, Ken Stabler dropped back to pass and was sandwiched by two defensive linemen. The ball popped out, going forward downfield. I ruled fumble. It was batted, muffed and finally recovered in the end zone by a member of the Raiders for a touchdown. In those days, a fumble forward during the last two minutes of the game could be recovered and advanced by any member of the fumbling team or the defensive team. The NFL rules committee felt that this was an unfair situation that might encourage players to intentionally fumble the ball forward in order to gain yardage. From this was born the two-minute, fourth-down fumble rule, which exists today. Some of the old-time officials working with me back then in 1978 called this the "Markbreit rule."

Another question regarding the two-minute, fourth-down fumble rule, what about a dropped lateral? Is that considered a fumble and not advanceable or does the ball have to be fumbled forward for the rule to take effect? --Matt Cox, Bloomington, Ill.

It is a forward pass if the ball initially moves forward to a point nearer the opponents' goal line after leaving the passer's hand or, the ball first strikes the ground, a player, an official or anything else at a point that is nearer the opponents' goal line than the point at which the ball leaves the passer's hand. A backward pass is any pass that is not a forward pass. The phrase, "lateral pass," does not exist in the NFL rule book. Lateral passes are backward passes.

A fumble is any act other than a pass or legal kick which results in loss of player possession. The term "fumble" always implies possession. If an offensive player fumbles and then recovers his own fumble, he has regained possession.

So to answer your question, any backward pass can be advanced and recovered by anyone, unlike a fumble occurring during the two-minute/fourth-down situation. A backward pass is not a fumble.

Jerry, I enjoy your column every week, thanks for writing it. I know that as an official you sometimes have to call excessive celebration penalties on some touchdown celebrations, but I was wondering whether you enjoyed any of the especially creative ones? What are some of your favorite end-zone celebrations? --Pankaj Chhabra, St. Louis

I am glad that you enjoy the column. Under NFL rules, players are prohibited in engaging in any celebration that is prolonged or excessive. They are also prohibited from engaging in any celebration while on the ground. This is a very serious penalty, and is certainly not enjoyed by the officiating staff. My favorite end-zone activity occurs when the player who scores a touchdown hands the ball to the nearest official.

Jerry, why is it that two penalties can offset even if they are for different yardage? Seems to me that if there are two penalties, one for five and the other for 10, the net penalty should be for five yards against the team drawing the 10 yarder. --Matt, Chicago

Penalties by either team, are offset. There is, however, an exception. When there is a five-yard penalty by one team and 15-yard penalty by the opposing team, the ball is returned to the previous line of scrimmage, regardless of the yardage gained on the play. The 15-yard penalty is enforced from that spot and the five-yard penalty is disregarded. So you see, there is some equity in the enforcement rules. They just don't differentiate between five- and 10-yard penalties.

Can you line up your quarterback under your guard and your running back under center, have the quarterback call the snap count and when the ball is snapped each player goes a different way as a mis-direction play. This was used in a city league football game that abides by NCAA rules in a hurry-up offense to catch the other team off guard. The ref called it back and said it is illegal to have two people behind the lineman acting as the quarterback. I know this is a goofy question, but can you help me? --Scott Hall, Carrollton, Texas

This answer is no. If the quarterback lines up behind the guard, appearing to receive the snap, the play is killed immediately and a false start foul is ruled. Only the player behind the center with his hands extended may receive the snap. If the running back were behind center with the quarterback one full yard behind the line of scrimmage, the snap would be legal. The referee, in the game that you saw, was absolutely correct. Only one backfield man in all rules of football can be less than one yard behind the line of scrimmage at the snap; and, in your case, there were two. All legal backfield players must be a yard behind the line at the snap, with the exception of the player under center.

On what pre-snap occasions will an official warn a player that he is in danger of committing a penalty? In one Bears game this year I noticed an official, perhaps the umpire, going to the defensive line, just before the snap on a gimme field-goal attempt, to suggest that the defensive player move over so as not to be covering up the center. Is this standard procedure? Why doesn't the official stationed at the sideline on the line of scrimmage warn a defensive player lined up in the neutral zone, or an offensive player lined up in an illegal formation? --Robin Fishbein, Chicago

The officials are not allowed to directly advise players to change position in order to avoid a foul. They can answer a question pertaining to positioning, and, in this way, can be of help in avoiding penalties. The head linesman and line judge, who are on the line of scrimmage, are positioned so that the offensive players know where the line of scrimmage is. This also helps in avoiding illegal formation fouls and defensive offsides.

If the QB throws a pass to a WR who is running down the sidelines and a DB pushes the WR out of bounds while the ball is in the air it should draw a pass interference penalty. But if said received came back in bounds and was the first to touch the ball that would seemingly draw an illegal touching penalty. In a case like this would the penalties offset? --Dutch Morgan, South Bend, Ind.

If the wide receiver is pushed out of bounds by the defensive back beyond the five-yard zone, a foul for illegal contact occurs. And this, coupled with a defensive pass interference foul, would create an offset and the down would be replayed. If the push out of bounds occurs in the first five yards, there is no foul for illegal contact, but the wide receiver cannot touch the ball until it has been legally touched by any eligible player. This would create an offset for illegal touching and pass interference. In both of your situations, the penalties would offset and the down would be replayed.

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MessageSujet: Re: L'échiquier vert (©Oleo) - Questions sur les règles du jeu   Jeu 19 Oct - 13:49

Citation :
Ask Jerry Markbreit
The former NFL referee answers reader questions every week during the season

October 17, 2006, 1:53 PM CDT

According to your Dec. 21, 2005 column, you wrote that it was OK to tackle by grabbing a player's hair. But yesterday, Larry Johnson was assessed an unsportsmanlike conduct penalty for tackling Troy Polamalu by his hair. Did the rule change? --Steve, Lafayette, Ind.

The television announcers were incorrect in assuming that a foul was called when Polamalu was tackled by his hair. The foul was for unnecessary roughness, which occurred when the same player who made the tackle continued to fight with an opponent after the whistle had blown. Tackling a player by any hair that is sticking out of a helmet is still fair game.

During the Florida-Auburn game on Saturday, the Florida punter dropped the snap and then started to try for a 'rugby-style' kick. An Auburn player seemed to hit him before he got the punt off, and then the next guy in blocked the kick and it was run back for a touchdown. Why was that not a penalty for roughing the kicker since he was hit while still holding the ball? I love this piece every week, thanks for doing it! --Pat Kelly, Streamwood, Ill.

Whenever it is not apparent that a punter is going to get a clean kick away; i.e., dropping the ball, muffing the snap or running out of his punting stance, all protection with regard to running into the kicker is off. In the play that you describe, once the punter dropped the ball and did not kick it cleanly, the Auburn player had every right to hit him. Roughing the kicker, however, could be called if the hit was to the head or especially vicious. And what a nice compliment. I have been around football for 50 years and it's a lot of fun giving little-known information to sports fans around the country like you.

If a returner muffs a kickoff at the 5-yard line and he recovers it in the end zone, can he take the touchback? --Stephen Wolfe, St. Paul, Minn.

When a receiving team muffs a kickoff (which means he does not possess it but merely touches it), and the ball continues into the end zone, the receiving team must gain possession in order to have a touchback. The impetus that put the ball into the end zone is the kickoff; consequently, the receiving team does not have to run the ball out of the end zone. If the ball continues out of the end zone, it is also a touchback, and the receivers would put the ball in play on their own 20-yard line. If the kicking team were to recover the ball in their opponents' end zone, it would be a touchdown.

The punt lands short of the receiving team's return man, and takes a high bounce his way. What contact, if any, is the kicking team allowed to have with that return man, given that the return man has already had a chance to catch the ball on the fly? Is he "live," and able to be tackled or contacted before the bouncing ball reaches him? If it's a violation, what would be the penalty call? --Frank Workman, Lake Forest, Ill.

Once the punt hits the ground, the returner may be blocked or pushed out of the way by a member of the kicking team. However, he cannot be tackled, which would be deemed holding and carries a 10-yard penalty. If the receiver were to have given a fair catch signal and then failed to catch the kick, the only restriction would be that the receiver cannot block an opponent until the grounded kick has been touched by a player.

I'm having a friendly dispute with a pal of mine. Maybe you can help! On an end zone catch with the player in control of the ball, his left foot lands inbounds and his right foot comes down with the ball of that foot clearly inbounds but before he lifts or slides the ball of that foot, the heel comes down on the line. Out of bounds, TD or no TD? --Bill Pozniak, Cinnaminson, N.J.

Your receiver is out of bounds and no touchdown is scored. The pass is incomplete. When the second foot comes to the ground, it is considered one entity, which cannot be split. The toe-heel makes this an out-of-bounds play because part of the foot lands on the end line. The common catch is one foot in and a toe tap getting the other foot in before the player goes out-of-bounds. This play has been discussed for years and for one short period of time the toe-heel was considered a catch. The rules committee decided, once and for all, that it was not in the best interest of the game, so it is now an incomplete pass.

Jerry, I just heard Mike Pereira, Director of Officiating for the NFL, explain that roughing the passer was a discretionary call of the referee, i.e, it is his job to protect the QB. What is the rule? Is it a player's intent to harm the QB or the possibility their actions may harm the QB that draws the flag? Thanks. --Jerry, Jacksonville, Fla.

Roughing the passer is any physical act against a passer during or just after a pass which, in the referee's judgment, is unwarranted by the circumstances of the play and will be called as fouls. The referee will be guided by the following principles: • Roughing will be called, if in the referee's judgment a pass rusher clearly should have known that the ball had left the passer's hand before contact was made. • A rushing defender is prohibited from committing such intimidating and punishing acts as "stuffing" a passer into the ground or unnecessarily wrestling or driving him down after the passer has thrown the ball. • Any contact with the passer's head by a defender will always be roughing the passer. There are many more restrictions with regard to roughing the passer. The responsibility for protection of the quarterback rests solely with the referee. It is his experienced judgment that determines when a foul against the passer should be called.

One part of the game that is rarely seen up close on TV is the contact between the cornerback and the receiver within the first five yards. I know the CB can't tackle the receiver, but some sort of contact is allowed. Would you explain what the CB is allowed to do to slow down the receiver? I'm guessing they can only block with one hand. --Todd Martin, Elgin, Ill.

An eligible receiver is considered to be an obstructing opponent, one who can be blocked only to a point five-yards beyond the line of scrimmage. Within this five-yard zone, a defensive player may chuck an eligible receiver in front of him with one or both hands. The defender is allowed to maintain continuous and unbroken contact within the five-yard zone, so long as the receiver has not moved beyond a point that is even with the defender. Within the five-yard zone, a defender may not make original contact in the back of a receiver, nor may he use his hands or arms to hang onto or encircle a receiver. Once this receiver goes beyond this five-yard zone, no contact by the defense is allowed on pass plays.

I read the comments you answered about the 10-second run-off in a Bears game. What just happened to the Rams? With 4 seconds to go, there was a penalty on Seattle with no run-off AND the running clock stopped. If that is not an advantage, what is? Can the Rams protest that the game was over? --Bob Achille, Shelton, Conn.

The play that you refer to in the Seattle-St. Louis game, played last Sunday, was correctly called by referee Ed Hochuli. Seattle's quarterback spiked the ball with four seconds remaining on the clock. At the snap, the head linesman threw a flag for an illegal formation foul. The referee announced that a five-yard penalty would be assessed against Seattle with the clock starting on the snap of the ball and four seconds remaining. This illegal formation foul does not fall in the category of 10-second run-offs. The fouls that carry a 10-second run-off are fouls when players are moving, such as illegal motion and false starts. The illegal formation foul had no players moving at the snap, consequently, the game was not over and Seattle was entitled to another play. A little complicated, but handled absolutely perfect by the crew of NFL officials.

Good column, as many questions seem to always arise in the course of a season. Jerry, as the head referee on the officiating team, you were in the position to view the replay under the terms of a challenge. Fans watching on TV (as well as the game commentators) are shown many views and angles of the play in question, and the play is shown in normal speed and in varying slow-motion speeds. Did you, as the review official on the field, have the same replays available as the commentators and fans? I'd guess that at least half the time the officials' final call differs from the broadcast crews' predictions (people also considered football experts). How much of a factor is the NFL officiating team's natural tendency to not make each other look bad at the expense of the wrongly called play? I really want to hear your feelings on this issue. Thank you. --Robert Green, Spring Hill, Fla.

I retired as an active official at the end of the 1998 season and was a replay official for two years. I did not have the experience of looking into the monitor and making the decisions that the current NFL referees enjoy. However, I can tell you that the replay system shows every available replay supplied by the broadcast. The replay official and the referee see everything that you see at home, and sometimes even shots that are not immediately shown to the viewing audience. The broadcast crews are not as well-versed in the rules of replay, and, consequently, often predict the outcome based on limited knowledge. There is absolutely no tendency to protect a call on the field with regard to replay. The officials want the call to be right. If replay can change a mistake to a correct call, so be it.

In college, if a team is lining up for a field goal, is it legal for the holder to take the snap while on a knee then stand up and throw a pass on a fake field goal? I thought in college if you have possession of the ball and are on a knee you are considered down. --Scott Roberts, Norwood, Mass.

Under college rules, a ball carrier who touches the ground with anything other than his hands or feet is considered to be down and the play is over. However, there is one exception to this rule, and it is the holder of a place kick who may receive the snap with his knee on the ground and then rise to his feet and continue to do whatever the play calls for. Back in the old days, when I began my college officiating career, the holder of the kick had to rise off his knee before the snap arrived in order not to be ruled down.

Let's say an official on the sideline isn't sure if the ball broke the plane of the goal line because his view of the ball was obstructed. He looks at his counterpart across the field, and he didn't have a clear view either. How do they make the call? In that situation, does the head lineman's best estimate prevail? --David Englund, Belvidere, Ill.

There is no estimating by officials in ruling a score. If no official sees the ball break the plane of the goal line, they will continue to run toward the pile of players. If they find the ball over the goal line while digging through the players, a touchdown is signaled. In the pro game, replay can assist when no one sees the ball break the plane of the goal line.

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MessageSujet: Re: L'échiquier vert (©Oleo) - Questions sur les règles du jeu   Mar 24 Oct - 19:29

Question con :

Pourquoi en NCAA les arbitres jettent un flag sur le terrain lors des phases de punt return ?

Merci
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MessageSujet: Re: L'échiquier vert (©Oleo) - Questions sur les règles du jeu   Mar 24 Oct - 19:51

ça peut etre le Beanbag pour marquer l'endroit où fut catchée la balle en cas de pénalité ensuite...

Mais ce que j'y connais, hein...

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MessageSujet: Re: L'échiquier vert (©Oleo) - Questions sur les règles du jeu   Mar 24 Oct - 20:00

Ha ouais peut être... Merci
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MessageSujet: Re: L'échiquier vert (©Oleo) - Questions sur les règles du jeu   Mar 24 Oct - 20:39

Ils le font aussi en NFL, il me semble.

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MessageSujet: Re: L'échiquier vert (©Oleo) - Questions sur les règles du jeu   Mar 24 Oct - 20:42

Oui ça se fait en NFL. Ils jettent un petit machin bleu. Et sur un fumble par exemple, si la possession change encore, ils jettent leur casquette.
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MessageSujet: Re: L'échiquier vert (©Oleo) - Questions sur les règles du jeu   Mar 24 Oct - 20:53

CB-Blitz X---> a écrit:
Oui ça se fait en NFL. Ils jettent un petit machin bleu. Et sur un fumble par exemple, si la possession change encore, ils jettent leur casquette.

Sauf Ed Hochuli, qui jette des boules de plomb de 15 kilos qu'il garde dans ses poches pendant les rencontres.

désolé...
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MessageSujet: Re: L'échiquier vert (©Oleo) - Questions sur les règles du jeu   Jeu 26 Oct - 10:28

Citation :
Ask Jerry Markbreit
The former NFL referee answers reader questions every week during the season

October 25, 2006, 4:56 PM CDT

Jerry, during Sunday's Colts-Redskins game, the Redskins punter attempted to punt the ball on a kickoff from the 10-yard line after two penalties had been assessed. The play was blow dead apparently because he had done so before the ref's signal to start the play. I was under the impression that kickoffs must be kicked from a tee. Are there exceptions to that, and if not, why would the Redskins attempt it? --Herb, Arlington, Va.

You are correct. The play was blown dead because the referee had not given the ready-for-play signal. The punted ball did not count because a kickoff must be a place kick. A one-inch tee can be used on a kickoff, but it is not mandatory. A free kick on anything other than a kickoff after a score may be a punt, drop kick or place kick; but, in the case of a place kick after safety, a tee may not be used, by rule. In the play that you describe, an additional third penalty was assessed against the kicking team when the kicker removed his helmet. The ball was finally kicked off by place kick from the kicking team's five-yard line. There must have been some confusion on the part of the kicking team with regard to the type of kick dictated by rule on a kickoff.

What is the ruling for illegal contact or pass interference in the case of a flea flicker or similar play? For example, would a linebacker be called for illegal contact or defensive pass interference if, during the initial handoff that starts the play, he makes contact beyond five yards of the line of scrimmage with a receiver, who intends to catch a pass after the ball is tossed back to the quarterback? Considering the speed of today's NFL receivers, it is certainly likely that one could be well downfield as the running portion of the play develops, and the defender would have no way of knowing that the play was, in fact, designed as a pass and that he was interfering with a potential receiver. --Vin Lenza, Staten Island, N.Y.

The illegal contact rule is only in effect when it is obvious that the quarterback is going to pass the football. Whenever he hands off or pitches the ball to another back, this illegal contact rule is off because the play appears to be a running play. When it turns into a pass on your flea flicker, only the pass interference rules remain intact. Once the ball is airborne, the defensive team is restricted from any illegal contact with the intended receiver.

Can you have an interception when the ball if deflected off the goal post? --Taylor, Kansas

The goal posts are out of bounds in the end zone. Any ball that is deflected is considered to be out of bounds and the play is over, with no interception or recovery possible by either team. The only exception is a field goal or try kick that rebounds off the goal post and goes through the uprights. This ball is not dead and the field goal or try is scored.

Let's say a coach makes a replay challenge about whether a player made a first down. On review, the replay shows that the ball was spotted incorrectly but the new spot doesn't gain a first down. Is this considered a successful or unsuccessful challenge for purpose of time outs and further challenge availability? If the new spot actually turns out to be worse for the challenging team than the original call, can it nevertheless be considered a successful challenge because it resulted in correcting an erroneous call? --David Englund, Belvidere, Ill.

This is not a successful challenge and the challenging team is charged with a team timeout, even though the forward progress spot was incorrect. In this case the ball would be moved to the correct spot, but because the first down was not gained by the offensive team, they are still charged with an incorrect challenge.

First off, as a Skokie native, you do my village proud. Love reading the column. Since the illegal formation penalty results in no 10-second run-off, couldn't an offense get everyone onside and set in whatever place they are and then spike the ball to stop the clock without losing time? Yeah, they'd get five yards for illegal formation, but that'd be worth it to not lose the time to get all those offensive linemen and receivers in place. --Ralph, Chicago

Thank you for the very special compliment. I really appreciate your comment, as I share your pleasure in being a Skokie citizen. The only time that would be lost on your play would be from the snap until the ball actually struck the ground on the spike. Because there is no 10-second runoff on the illegal formation foul, the offensive team would be assured of another play with the clock starting on the snap after the five-yard penalty is assessed.

In the Chicago-Arizona game, the head official was Jerome Boger. ESPN flashed a graphic that said it was his third years as an NFL official and his first as head referee. Three years seems fast to make it to the top, I thought there was minimum time served before getting the top spot of a crew. --Brad Waters, Champaign, Ill.

There is no minimum number of years that must be served before becoming a referee, or crew chief. I came into the National Football League in 1976, and was made a referee in 1977. Jerome Boger came out of Conference USA and was one of their top referees for many years. He is well qualified and is doing an outstanding job in his first year at that position. Just a footnote: The seven-man officiating crew is referred to as "the officials." Each position has its own name. The Referee wears the white hat and is the crew chief. There is a head linesman, line judge, umpire, side judge, field judge and back judge.

When is a player considered down by contact? If he is in the motion of falling and is touched, does that make him down? Or does he have to be touched after/while his knee hits the ground? --Janelle T., Santa Barbara, Calif.

Let me give you the definition of down-by-contact: "An official shall declare dead ball and the down ended when a runner is contacted by a defensive player and he touches the ground with any part of his body, except his hands or feet. If, however, he regains his equilibrium after the contact and continues on his way before going to the ground, the down-by-contact rule would not be in effect."

In the Bears-Cardinals game, Edgerrin James was stood up by a tackler, then the ball was stripped by another defender. It seems that forward progress had been stopped. When is forward progress ruled to be stopped, and is it reviewable in the case of a fumble? --Patrick Perkins, Claredon Hills, Ill.

Forward progress is not reviewable unless a first down line-to-gain is involved. An official will declare dead ball and the down ended when a runner is so held or otherwise restrained that his forward progress ends. This is an objective decision made by very experienced officials. The runner is given every opportunity to break away in situations like the one that you describe. James was still moving when the ball was stripped.

I was reading about the Immaculate Reception and it said that if two offensive players touched a pass in succession then the pass would be illegal. Is this true? What if a pass is bobbled by one player and caught by another? Would the Hitch and Pitch be illegal too? --Jake Karnes, Campbell, Calif.

This is true. The double-touch rule was in effect for many years, but was finally changed to the present rule because of the Immaculate Reception play. It was impossible, under this old rule, to determine whether or not two offensive players had consecutively touched the football in the game in question. Today, there is no restriction on pass reception and the ball could be touched by any number of eligible receivers consecutively with no penalty. Often, rules are changed because of one play like this.

Some networks are now using remote controlled cameras suspended above the field by wires. Would a ball striking the camera or wires be a live or dead ball? What would be the ruling in this case? --Mark Provenzano, Gilroy, Calif.

If a ball strikes any part of the remote camera setup, including wires suspended above the field, the down is replayed. However, any penalty occurring on the play would be enforced as usual. This ruling is referred to as the "gondola rule." When Ray Guy was punting for the Oakland Raiders, he hit the gondola at the roof at the Super Dome with a sky-high kick. This gondola was the housing for a scoreboard and game clocks. The officials decided to replay the down, even though this was not covered in the rule book. The gondola rule covers everything from seagulls to remote cameras and everything else in between.

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MessageSujet: Re: L'échiquier vert (©Oleo) - Questions sur les règles du jeu   Jeu 2 Nov - 11:56

Citation :
Ask Jerry Markbreit
The former NFL referee answers reader questions every week during the season

October 31, 2006, 3:45 PM CST

In your Oct. 25 column, David from Belvidere asked about challenging the spot for a first down. You said that the challenge is lost even if the spot was incorrect but there was still no first down. What if the coach challenged the spot of the ball and not whether a first down was gained? Also, will the referee help the coach out in making sure he is challenging the correct thing? --Ray, Lake Forest, Ill.

The coach cannot challenge forward progress unless a possible first down is involved. If the red flag is thrown, the referee will go over to the coach, and find out what he is challenging. The referee will then explain to the coach that the situation that you describe cannot be challenged. The coach is relieved of any responsibility and a timeout is not charged to that team for throwing the red flag. However, there are situations where a team might be penalized for unsportsmanlike conduct if the red flag was thrown for no other reason than to stop the clock.

What equipment do players have to wear when on the field? For example I notice most kickers do not wear leg pads. Could a player take the field not wearing shoulder pads if he wanted? --Adam Dollar, Chicago

NFL players must wear the following:
  • A helmet with chin strap (white only) fastened and a face mask attached to the helmet.
  • A jersey that covers all pads and other protective equipment worn on the torso and upper arms and must be appropriately tailored to remain tucked into the uniform pants throughout the game. Tearaway jerseys are prohibited.
  • Numerals on the back and the front of the jersey in accordance with the rules.
  • Pants that must be worn over the entire knee area.
  • Shoulder pads that must be worn and completely covered by the uniform jersey.
  • stockings that must cover the entire area from the shoe to the bottom of the pants and that must meet the pants below the knee.
  • League-approved shoes that must be of standard football design.


A couple of weeks ago, a call in a Steelers game in the last two minutes of a half was being reviewed after the replay booth called for the review. The Pittsburgh coach, Bill Cowher, was upset that the call was being reviewed. The cameras caught him approach the referee as he was returning from the sideline monitor. Cowher talked with the referee for some time about why the play had been reviewed before the referee went to the field to announce the replay decision. As the referee's decision had gone Pittsburgh's way, could the referee have just told Cowher what the decision was to head off any further argument? Or is he prevented by the rules from revealing the decision to one side or the other first? --Dan Icenogle, Readstown, Wis.

After reviewing a replay challenge, the referee, by league rule, announces the decision on the referee's microphone for all in the stadium and on television to hear. It would not be permitted to speak to one coach or the other prior to this announcement, regardless of the pressure of the situation. Coaches arguing is part of football and the referees understand this completely.

If the offense commits an illegal forward pass, (either two passes on the same down, or passing beyond the LOS) and the defense intercepts the pass, is the play dead, or can the defense decline the illegal forward pass penalty and accept the interception? --Bruce Reignier, Sugar Hill, Ga.

The defense can decline the penalty for any illegal forward pass and choose to take the results of the play, which, in this case, is an interception. With few exceptions, all penalties may be declined. The ball always continues in play when an illegal forward pass is caught either by the offense or intercepted by the defense.

A defensive player recovers a fumble near the sideline. As he picks up the ball his first step is out of bounds. Is this a legal recovery? --Gino Martinez, Texas

If the defensive player has both feet inbounds or any other part of his body touching the ground other than his hand, it is a legal recovery. If, in the opinion of the officials, he has gained possession before his first step is out of bounds, it is a legal recovery. If he is juggling the ball as his first step hits the sideline, the play is ruled a fumble out of bounds and the ball belongs to the offensive team at the spot of the fumble, unless the out-of-bounds spot is less advantageous.

A player makes a difficult catch for a first down on a play where the defender also interfered with the receiver. The offense declines the penalty, proceeds to the next play, when the defense challenges that the ball actually hit the ground. Upon further review, the ball does, in fact, hit the ground. Now, can the offense decide to then go back and accept the penalty? --Sean Vogt, Monrovia, Calif.

If replay determines that the pass was incomplete, the offensive team may accept the penalty for defensive pass interference. The fact that they declined the penalty prior to the replay challenge does not prohibit them from changing their minds because the result of the play was changed. The rules of football are, for the most part, very equitable. The referee will use a lot of common sense to ensure that the right decisions are made when plays are complicated, such as this.

In the Raiders-Cardinals, Matt Leinart was tackled on or near his own goal line and debate ensued as to whether it was a safety. The officials ruled that Leinart's forward progress was stopped outside the end zone and that the play was not a safety. The point became moot on the next play, an unquestioned safety. Does a safety occur when the ball is down with any part of the ball in the end zone or does the entire ball have to be in the end zone when the player is ruled down? That is, does the forward point of the ball (from the offense's perspective) determine its location in this instance as it does in all other instances on the field? --Erin Haight, Spokane, Wash.

The entire ball must get out of the end zone when a runner is down in his own end zone. In your play the question of whether a safety was scored or not concerned forward progress and not the ball on the ground. The line judge is responsible for forward progress by the quarterback and in his judgement progress was established in the field of play before Leinart was driven back into the end zone. When forward progress is established by a field official, the play is over and any ensuing fumble by the ball carrier would not count.

What is the difference between encroachment, offside and a neutral-zone infraction? --Stephanie, Chicago

Encroachment is a defensive foul and occurs when a defensive player makes contact with an offensive player prior to the snap. If the ball is snapped, the snap is negated and a five-yard penalty against the defense is assessed. Offside occurs when a player of either team is in the neutral zone (the width of the football) at the snap. Offensive offside is rare because all players are restricted from any movement once they are set. This movement would be considered a false start. Defensive teams often charge into the neutral zone, anticipating the snap count and are caught in the neutral zone before the snap. Sometimes, defensive players line up in the neutral zone and even with no movement at the snap, are penalized for offside. The referee would announce "Offside, defense, lining up in the neutral zone." A neutral zone infraction occurs when a defensive player jumps into the neutral zone prior to the snap, causing an offensive player in his vicinity to false start. The penalty is against the defense and not the offense.

Hi, Sr. Jerry Markbreit, since when has the orange-sleeved man on sideline worked in every NFL game and what's his purpose? --Davie Menassé, México City

The orange-sleeved man on the sideline works for the television network and has been present since NFL games first appeared on television. The "orange sleeves," as he's known, is in touch with the television producer, and on command signals with both arms across his chest to the referee that on the next change of possession, a TV commercial is requested. When the referee sees this, he points to the ground, indicating that he sees the request and will signal a television timeout after the play is over. However, if a penalty flag is thrown on the play, the referee will enforce the penalty before giving the TV timeout signal. If a pass interception or a fumble recovery occurs or a long kick return goes inside the opponents' forty-yard line, the referee will cancel the commercial request with a hand signal and television will have to choose another time for its break. The "orange sleeves" is a very important part of today's professional football games.

Hi, Jerry, a question and comment about last week's column. On the flea flicker, couldn't defensive players knock any offensive players to the ground prior to the ball being in the air? Or would something blatant like that be covered by something else? Also, Mike Pereira said on NFL network that a blatant attempt to kill the clock by illegal formation would result in a clock runoff. Thanks. --Randy, Plainfield, Ill.

You are correct: When a flea flicker play is in progress, a defensive player may knock any offensive player to the ground prior to the ball being airborne, providing the contact is not a personal foul. For those who do not know what a flea flicker is: When the quarterback hands off to another offensive player who then returns the ball backwards to the quarterback who proceeds to pass the ball downfield. The defensive team is generally caught off guard because the play looks like a run, instead of a pass.

Mike Pereira was absolutely correct when he stated that any blatant attempt to kill the clock by illegal formation would result in a 10-second runoff. This decision would lie solely with the referee.

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MessageSujet: Re: L'échiquier vert (©Oleo) - Questions sur les règles du jeu   Ven 10 Nov - 10:08

Citation :
Ask Jerry Markbreit
The former NFL referee answers reader questions every week during the season

November 7, 2006, 5:18 PM CST

Jerry, please explain when an NFL team is charged with a timeout in the case of an injury. In the Texans/Giants game, there were 2 successive plays in the fourth quarter with 10 minutes to go when a Texans defender was injured. Later, the Texans took their second timeout and the radio guys commented that one TO was used during an injury. We were confused. Please help. --Richard Reif, North Caldwell, N.J.

"The referee shall suspend play while the ball is dead and declare a charged team timeout upon the request for a timeout by the head coach or any player to any official. If the referee calls a timeout for an injured player, a team will not be charged with a timeout unless the injured player remains in the game, or if players on the field or from the bench attempt to assist the player from the field without being directed to do so by their team physician, trainer of the referee; or the injury occurs after the two-minute warning after the half." That's the timeout rule directly from the rulebook. In the Giant game, with ten minutes remaining, no official timeouts were charged for the injuries. The announcers were incorrect. Only injuries during the last two minutes of either half result in a charged team timeout, unless the injury was caused by an illegal act by an opponent.

At halftime, do the officials look at video of the first half calls they made (or didn't make) or do they wait until after the game? What do they do at halftime? --Emile Seymour, Andover, Mass.

There is no video review at halftime by the officials during NFL games. Halftime is only twelve minutes long. By the time the officials get into the locker room, they have about five minutes to rest before giving the five-minute warning to the teams, getting them ready to come out for the second half. The officials are given a DVD of the game on their way out of the stadium, and begin their reviews on the plane rides home.

Under the current rule, under what circumstances is the clock stopped on a sack? When is it then restarted? --David Englund, Belvidere, Ill.

Under NFL rules, if the player who takes the snap from center (usually the quarterback) is tackled behind the line of scrimmage, the clock is stopped and then restarted when the deepest receiver is within seven yards of the line of scrimmage on his way back to the huddle. The exception to this rule is a sack in the last two minutes of either half when the clock continues to run, treating this like an ordinary scrimmage play.

My question is in regards to the actual field of play itself. Does the officiating crew inspect the field prior to the game to ensure accuracy of lines, goal posts, measurements, etc. or does the NFL have a designated person or persons in each city that takes care of that for the officials? --Dan, Rockford

Each team has professional groundskeepers who are responsible for seeing that the fields meet all of the requirements stated in the NFL rulebook regarding fields, markings, etc. One hour before kickoff, the officials go out onto the field and recheck to make sure that everything on the field is correct. If there is something that can be corrected, the home team is required to do so. If it is something that cannot be fixed by game time, it is reported to the league office by the officials. The home team would be required to have any problems solved by the next home game.

A couple weekends ago, a kickoff returner was on his way to a touchdown and had only the kicker to beat. The kicker flopped on his side and kicked the returner in the legs, tripping him. The kicker was penalized for tripping, but was actually rewarded for his play because he'd stopped the touchdown. If the result of the play would clearly have been a touchdown, could the refs have invoked the "blatantly unfair" rule and awarded a TD to the returner? What's to prevent other kickers from trying this move, which could result in some serious injuries? --Will Mahoney-Watson, Lake Oswego, Ore.

The answer to your question is no. Any foul committed by a player on the field is enforced according to enforcement procedures. No score can be awarded under these circumstances. If an illegal block sprung the runner on his way to a touchdown, the penalty would be enforced, but no score awarded. The trip that you describe falls in this category. The rulebook states, "A substitute or coach or any sideline person shall not interfere with play by any act which is palpably unfair. The referee, after consulting his crew, enforces any distance penalty as he consider equitable and irrespective of any other specified code penalty. The referee could award a score under these circumstances."

Thank you for your great insight into a game so many of us love to watch. If you've answered this question before, I apologize, but I tried to read through earlier editions and couldn't find it. In the Colts-Broncos game last Sunday, Colts quarterback Peyton Manning repeatedly made a step with his left foot and the center would move his body, shifting his legs, but not moving his hands. Approx. 3-5 seconds later, Manning would repeat the leg movement and the center would then snap the ball. With the new 'Kruetz' rule about wiggling the fingers, isn't this along the same lines? Thanks! --Tim Goldenstein, Plainfield

You are very welcome. I love the game, too! None of Peyton Manning's movements are designed to simulate the start of the play. He does this on almost every offensive play. The movement of the center is incidental and also not considered illegal. False starts are called when players' movements do simulate the start of the play. The rule that you refer to as the "Kruetz rule" is not violated by Manning and his center.

You have mentioned that nearly any penalty can be declined. After a penalty, does the head official always have to check with the coach of the benefiting team even when the choice is a no-brainer? Like a third down defensive offside that results in a first down for the offense? Or are the officials allowed to assume that the offense will take the penalty without checking with the sideline? --Phil Rosenfeld, San Antonio

After a penalty is called, the referee consults with the team captain to determine whether the penalty is accepted or declined. The referee never makes that decision on his own. If it is a complicated enforcement, the referee will get an answer from the head coach in order to avoid any mistaken decision by the team captain. The referee will never let a team captain make an obviously incorrect choice. That is why he will consult with the head coach upon occasion.

During the Bears/49ers game, after the introduction of the officials, you were introduced as the trainer. What does the "trainer" do? --Adam Smedstad, Chicago

My job with the NFL is titled, "Assistant Supervisor of Officials." Specifically, I am the referee trainer, or mentor. I observe the work of each of the seventeen referees on video and at game sites and help them improve their mechanics and microphone skills. I do not grade their decisions regarding fouls. That is done by supervisors in the league office on Monday and Tuesday after the game. This "training program" provides an ongoing learning experience for the NFL officials. There is a trainer for each of the seven positions.

If the defense forces a turnover on either a PAT attempt or 2-Point Conversion and returns it to the endzone, is the defensive team awarded a touchdown? --Brian Ferwerda, Lombard

Under NFL rules, an unsuccessful PAT attempt may not be advanced by the defensive team. If the PAT is kicked and blocked, the play is over. If a two-point conversion is attempted and a fumble ensues, the recovery by the defensive team kills the play and the try is over. Under NCAA rules, an unsuccessful PAT may be advanced for a score by the defense and one point is awarded in this situation.

Jerry, what does it mean when an official rolls his arms before a play begins similar to illegal procedure? --Nate Wolfson, San Antonio

Answer: The rolling of the arms indicates that the special fumble rule is in effect for that play. This is the two-minute fumble rule, prohibiting recovery of any fumble occuring during the last two minutes of either half by anyone other than the fumbler. This rule is also in effect on all fourth down plays throughout the game and on PATs. This signal is given by each member of the officiating crew in order to ensure proper handling of a fumble falling under the above categories. There are so many special rules, that reminders like the rolling of the arms keeps the officials on their toes.

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MessageSujet: Re: L'échiquier vert (©Oleo) - Questions sur les règles du jeu   Jeu 16 Nov - 13:30

Citation :
Ask Jerry Markbreit
The former NFL referee answers reader questions each week during the season

November 15, 2006, 11:45 AM CST

I have some questions regarding the Devin Hester's touchdown on a missed field goal Sunday night against the Giants. If Hester chose to down the ball in the end zone, would the Bears have taken possession at the 20 or from the spot of the kick? And if the ball bounced before Hester picked it up, would he still be allowed to return it, or are you required to catch a FG attempt in order to return it? Thanks for the informative column - I look forward to it each week! --Chuck, Northbrook, Ill.

If Devin Hester had downed the ball in the end zone, the Bears would have had possession at the spot of the kick. The rule states that a missed field goal is always returned to the spot of the kick, unless the ball is touched by a member of the receiving team in the field of play. Once it is touched in the field, the special rule of return to the previous spot of the kick disappears. If the ball had bounced in the end zone, the play would have been over and the ball returned to the spot of the kick. You are required to catch a field goal if it goes into the end zone in order to return it. However, if the ball bounces in the field of play, the receivers can then pick the ball up and return it; but, in doing so, give up the choice field position that they would have had had the ball not been touched in the field of play. I am very glad that you like the column.

What happens if you return a missed field goal and get tackled? Who gets the ball and where? --Chris, West Chicago, Ill.

When a member of the receiving team returns a missed field goal, it is their ball at the spot that they are tackled. I have explained all of the particulars of this situation in the previous question.

A wide receiver catches a ball and, as he is making a move, he fumbles. The ball is recovered by the defensive back and while he is running the ball back he fumbles and the ball is recovered by the offense. The defense challenges the play saying the DB was down before the ball came out. While reviewing the replay the official see that the WR who caught the ball never had possession, so it was not a legal catch. What would happen? Would the offensive team have to also challenge the play? --Adam Dollar, Chicago

Whenever a play is challenged, the replay system can correct any situation occurring during the entire play, providing the play falls under the rules of replay. In your play, the result of the play would be an incomplete pass, and, even though the defense challenged, they would not be charged with a timeout because an aspect of the play was changed by the replay system. The offensive team would not have to challenge.

Jerry, why do you think networks don't hire referees for their broadcast teams? I always thought the referee would bring a fresh perspective. --Remberto, Chicago

The networks hire retired football players who are experts on all aspects of the game, like formations and strategy. The officials are experts on the rules of the game and not the technicalities of actual play.

I am a Marine currently serving in the Al Anbar province in Iraq. On occasion there is down time out here and Marines tend to get bored and let their minds wonder. We cam across a football scenario that we can't seem to agree on and can't find a source to answer our question. I was hoping that you could help. A quarterback drops back and throws a pass. Before the pass passes the line of scrimmage, it is deflected by a defensive lineman right back to the quarterback. Can the quarterback throw a forward pass after all that happened? If not, what is the penalty? --Armando Espinoza, Dallas, Texas

First and foremost, thank you for defending our country. We are all very proud of you and your fellow Marines. To the answer from the rulebook: "The offensive team may make one forward pass from behind the line during each play from scrimmage, provided the ball does not cross the line and return behind the line prior to the pass. Any other forward pass by either team is illegal and is a foul by the passing team. When any illegal pass is caught or intercepted, the ball may be advanced and the penalty declined." For a second forward pass from behind the line of scrimmage, which is the play that you describe, the penalty is loss of five yards from the previous line of scrimmage. The penalty for a forward pass from behind the line of scrimmage is the loss of a down and a five-yard penalty from the spot of the pass. A simple answer to your question is, no, the quarterback cannot pass the second time, even though the ball was batted back into his hands.

On a kickoff or punt, if the receiving team's returner touches the ball outside of the end zone, drops it and the ball goes into the end zone and the same player falls on it, is it a safety or touchback? --Eric, Fort Worth, Texas

If a member of the receiving team touches the ball outside of the end zone without possessing it and the ball continues into the end zone and is recovered by the receiving team, it is a touchback. The impetus that put the ball in the end zone comes from the kick. If the receiver drops the ball after possessing in the field of play and the ball goes into the end zone and is recovered by a member of the receiving team, it is a safety. The impetus that put the ball in the end zone was the fumble.

Jerry, can a player be penalized twice for the same infraction? In the Nov. 12 Cincinnati-San Diego game, the Charger DB left his feet and led with his helmet and hit a Bengals wide receiver. He was called for pass interference, but could he have been called for unnecessary roughness, as well? If not, and the pass was not further than 15 yards downfield, would the officials have called it unnecessary roughness to maximize the punishment to San Diego? --Ray, Kenosha, Wis.

Under NFL rules, if a personal foul (unnecessary roughness or a major face mask foul) is the pass interference, both penalties will be enforced. The offensive team is awarded an automatic first down from the spot of the interference and an additional fifteen yards is added to that spot for the personal foul. This situation only occurs when one single foul is the interference and the personal foul. If an unnecessary roughness foul occurs by the defense on a pass play in another spot on the field, the offensive team will have a choice of taking a 15-yard penalty from the previous line of scrimmage or a first down at the spot of the pass interference.

In the Patriots-Jets game on Sunday, the Patriots were called for an illegal formation because the tight end was "covered up" by a wide receiver. The tight end stayed in to block and did not go out for a pass. The play went for a long gain to the wide receiver but was negated by the illegal formation penalty. I thought that the tight end can be covered up as long as he does not go downfield or catch a pass. Did the officials make the correct call or were the Patriots incorrectly whistled for this penalty? --Chris, Putnam, Conn.

All players must wear numerals on their jerseys, in accordance with the rule. Quarterbacks, punters and place kickers, 1-19; running backs and defensive backs, 20-49; centers, 50-59 or 60-79 if 50-59 is unavailable; offensive guards and tackles, 60-79; wide receivers, 10-19 and 80-89; tight ends, 80-89; defensive linemen, 60-79*; and linebackers, 50-59. The tight end in your play must be on the end of the line of scrimmage in order to be legal. When he is covered by another eligible number, an illegal formation foul is created. The officials made the correct call. The only exception to this rule is that an ineligible offensive player may report to the referee that he is going to an eligible position on the end of the line and he is then not penalized for illegal formation. The referee will make an announcement that No. 75 is an eligible receiver, so that everyone on the defensive team knows of this change. If 75 remains in the game for additional plays, he must report to the referee on each play.
*90-99, plutôt

Wisconsin's strategy at the end of the first half against Penn State made me wonder about the new clock rule in college football. Wisconsin intentionally jumped offside on consecutive kickoffs, knowing the clock would start the moment the ball was kicked. If the clock eventually reached 0:00, would Penn State have been able to get a play from scrimmage had they declined a penalty? Is there any provision in the NFL rules that might deter a team from similarly eating away some time from the clock at the end of the game or half, taking away a play or two from scrimmage for the other team? --Jeff Jhee, Chicago

There is a special rule in college football covering unfair tactics by either team. If these offside penalties had run out the clock, the officials would have the right under this special rule to give the receiving team an untimed down after penalizing the kicking team for using an unfair tactic. Under NFL rules, this could not happen because the clock does not start on kickoffs until the ball is legally touched in the field of play by the receiving team.

What type of call did you personally find the most challenging to make correctly? --David Englund, Belvidere, Ill.

In my personal experience, the toughest call for a referee is the pass/fumble play. This is a play when the referee must determine whether the hand of the quarterback was coming forward with the ball in control before the ball came loose. If the ball is loose in the quarterback's hand and his hand comes forward and the ball goes forward, it is a fumble. These plays are very difficult and the NFL referees do an outstanding job of making the correct ruling.

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MessageSujet: Re: L'échiquier vert (©Oleo) - Questions sur les règles du jeu   Jeu 16 Nov - 14:13

Double C a écrit:
Citation :
Ask Jerry Markbreit
The former NFL referee answers reader questions each week during the season

November 15, 2006, 11:45 AM CST

[b]IAll players must wear numerals on their jerseys, in accordance with the rule. Quarterbacks, punters and place kickers, 1-19; running backs and defensive backs, 20-49; centers, 50-59 or 60-79 if 50-59 is unavailable; offensive guards and tackles, 60-79; wide receivers, 10-19 and 80-89; tight ends, 80-89; defensive linemen, 60-79*; and linebackers, 50-59. The tight end in your play must be on the end of the line of scrimmage in order to be legal. When he is covered by another eligible number, an illegal formation foul is created. The officials made the correct call. The only exception to this rule is that an ineligible offensive player may report to the referee that he is going to an eligible position on the end of the line and he is then not penalized for illegal formation. The referee will make an announcement that No. 75 is an eligible receiver, so that everyone on the defensive team knows of this change. If 75 remains in the game for additional plays, he must report to the referee on each play.
*90-99, plutôt

ouais c'est bizarre. Je sais que Kris Jenkins a le 77. Chez les Chargers 'y en a je crois aussi. Peut-être que c'est le même cas que pour les centres. Quand il n'y a plus de 90-99, les DL piochent dans les 60-79...

ou le contraire...
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