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 L'échiquier vert (©Oleo) - Questions sur les règles du jeu

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MessageSujet: Re: L'échiquier vert (©Oleo) - Questions sur les règles du jeu   Jeu 22 Sep - 15:12

Ah ouais? Shocked
J'avais jamais entendu parler d'une telle règle. Faudrait une sacrée jambe et un sacré vent dans le dos pour que ça marche.
Merci pour l'explication en tout cas.

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MessageSujet: Re: L'échiquier vert (©Oleo) - Questions sur les règles du jeu   Jeu 22 Sep - 15:31

Double C a écrit:
Ah ouais? Shocked
J'avais jamais entendu parler d'une telle règle. Faudrait une sacrée jambe et un sacré vent dans le dos pour que ça marche.
Merci pour l'explication en tout cas.

Ben disons que j'avais deja entendu parler de cette regle seulement parceque j'avais lu à une epoque toutes les regles du mon "fact book" et je m'etais toujours demandé l'utilité de ce FG apres fair catch. D'ailleurs, vu que c'est jamais utilisé, ca prouve bien que ca ne doit pas avoir beaucoup de sens pour les coachs NFL non plus.
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MessageSujet: Re: L'échiquier vert (©Oleo) - Questions sur les règles du jeu   Dim 25 Sep - 7:45

Je viens de lire ceci, c'est très bizarre effectivement scratch
Si je comprend bien, l'équipe A punt, si l'équipe B fait un fair catch, ils ont directement le droit de taper un fieldgoal depuis la ligne de scrimmage avec les défenseurs de l'équipe A à 10 yards, et tout cela sans snap, c'est compliqué Mr. Green
C'est clair que c'est du jamais vu, peut être si il reste que 3 secondes de jeu, que la position sur le terrain peut être avantageuse (l'équipe A qui se trouvait sur ses 5 yards et qui punt mal...) et comme l'équipe B n'a plus de temps mort ni de temps pour tenter de se rapprocher, ils tentent alors ce fameux fieldgoal... En ne prenant donc pas le risque de se faire blocker vu que la défense doit rester statique...
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MessageSujet: Re: L'échiquier vert (©Oleo) - Questions sur les règles du jeu   Jeu 6 Oct - 9:24

Citation :
Ask Jerry Markbreit
Former NFL referee Jerry Markbreit answers readers questions every week throughout the season

October 5, 2005, 4:02 PM CDT

Jerry, I came across a Web site that listed 2005 NFL officiating crews. It had them listed as "East Crew" and "West Crew." Is this new and does it mean a west crew will not work a game in the east and vice versa? --Matthew Garcia, Champaign, Ill.
The officiating crews are listed "East" and "West." There are 10 Eastern crews and seven Western crews. These crews are made up of officials primarily from the Eastern and Western parts of the United States. The crews, however, are sent all over the country to officiate and not just in the Eastern and Western zones of the county. A number of years ago, the crews were mostly kept in their zones, but that policy has changed, and it is not uncommon to see a Western crew working in New England on any given Sunday, and in New York the following week.

Can a team advance the ball on a field goal that falls short? --Dale LeSage, Dearborn, Mich.
A field goal attempt is treated the same as a punt with regard to returns, except with a few special rules. If an unsuccessful field goal is touched in the field of play by a receiver and advanced, that team gets the ball wherever the run ends. If the field goal attempt is untouched in the field of play by a receiver and the ball is blown dead, the receivers put the ball in play at the spot where the field goal was attempted, unless that spot was inside the 20-yard line and then the ball will be put on the 20.

This may seem obvious, but how is it determined whether an onside kick has been attempted? If a regular kickoff goes out of bounds, the ball is awarded to the receiving team at the 40; if an onside kick goes out of bounds, the kicking team is moved back five yards and allowed to re-kick. If a kicker were to badly shank a kick out-of-bounds, couldn't the team claim that they were attempting an onside kick and get a second attempt? -- Bob Kelsey, Oak Brook
Here's the rule: If a free kick that doesn't travel 20 yards goes out-of-bounds, the first time an onside kick is attempted, the kicking team is to be penalized five yards and must re-kick, except inside the last five minutes of the second half, when there will not be a free kick. While the receiving team may not waive the kicking team's obligation to rekick, it is not deprived of a choice of distance penalties in case of a multiple foul. For a second consecutive onside kick out-of-bounds, or for any onside kick out-of-bounds inside the last five minutes of the second half, the receiving team takes possession of the ball at the out-of-bounds spot.

I've grown tired of announcers saying that players need to dive into the end zone within the pylons, as well as players unnecessarily positioning the ball inside the pylon as they dive for the end zone. As I understand it, because the goal line stretches indefinitely outside the field of play, the pylon is essentially meaningless for judging a touchdown. Can you clarify this rule for me? And if the pylons serve no purpose, why are they there? -- Dan K., Boston
You are correct. The goal line stretches around the world outside at the field of play. The pylon's purpose is to signify that the ball or player is out-of-bounds in the end zone. If a player going in for a score hits the pylon with the ball extended over the plane of the goal line, he is out-of-bounds in the end zone, and a touchdown is awarded. But if a player is coming out of his own end zone and he hits the pylon with the ball in his possession, he is out-of-bounds in his end zone and a safety is awarded to the defensive team. So in that sense, the pylons are very important.

Could a team challenge a call that was originally to their advantage? For example, say a team is out of field goal range, it's third and long, and they attempt a deep pass. The pass is ruled incomplete, but it appears that the ball is intercepted on the 1-yard line and is reviewable. Knowing that a punt will most likely not have as good a result, can the offense challenge that its pass was actually intercepted and its opponent should have the ball on its own 1-yard line? Thanks. Great column! -- John Nowak, Park Ridge
Yes, any play can be challenged as long as it falls under the parameters of replay. In this case, the interception, rather than the incompletion, would greatly benefit the passing team. It would be a smart move on the part of the offensive coach. This has been done in recent weeks.

I know that only 45 players on the 53-man roster are active on game day. I believe a team can dress a 46th player if it is a third QB. What are the circumstances regarding when that QB can play and how does that affect the other two QBs? -- Dave Kirchner, Keosauqua, Iowa
The 46th player must be the third quarterback. If he enters the game in the first, second or third quarter, the first two quarterbacks may not enter the game. If he enters in the fourth quarter, either of the first two quarterbacks may come back in. The designated third quarterback may only be the quarterback, kicker, holder or punter. He may not play any other position, regardless of his number and he may not be on the field at the same time as either of the first two quarterbacks at any time during the game. If a team has three active quarterbacks as part of its 45-man roster, they are not allowed a 46th player. Overtime is treated the same as if it were the fourth quarter.

Your response to the question about return yardage on a penalty play is incorrect. According to the NFL guide for statisticians, return yards are credited to the point of the infraction. So, in your example of a 75-yard touchdown return with a penalty at the opposing 10-yard line returning the ball to the 25, the return yardage credited is 65, not 50. --Dave Ahlman, Des Plaines.
I stand corrected. You are absolutely right that the yardage is credited to the point of infraction. I try to be as accurate as possible in writing this column, but, unfortunately, I did not succeed in this instance. I will try harder in the future when questions other than rules are presented. Thanks for being so alert.

Copyright © 2005, ChicagoSports.com

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MessageSujet: Re: L'échiquier vert (©Oleo) - Questions sur les règles du jeu   Mer 12 Oct - 15:14

Citation :
Ask Jerry Markbreit
Former NFL referee Jerry Markbreit answers readers questions every week throughout the season

October 11, 2005, 1:47 PM CDT

During the Patriots-Falcons game, the Patriots punted and the punt returner called for a fair catch. But a Patriots player was clearly blocked from behind into the punt returner. They called a penalty on the Patriots player for interference. Is this a reviewable play? -- Bill Kelly, Tucker, Ga.

The NFL replay system does not get involved with judgment of penalty calls with a few exceptions. The penalties that are reviewable by replay are illegal forward pass from beyond the line of scrimmage, illegal touching of a forward pass by an ineligible receiver and twelve men on the field by either team.


Can you explain the penalty that occurred on the Oakland punt vs. Dallas at the end of the first half? Oakland punted the ball and No. 86 (Randal Williams) downed it, but was called for illegal touching. If I would guess, I would say it was because they used a strange formation to protect the punter (five down linemen, with three backs behind the line, and two WRs split out). Does this mean one of the WRs isn't legal to down the ball ... and if so which one? -- Matthew Furtek, Springfield, Va.

Formations used by kicking teams have no bearing on illegal touching. The rule states that "No player of the kicking team may illegally touch a scrimmage kick before it has been touched by a receiving team player." Any player on the kicking team can be guilty of illegal touching, regardless of where he lines up at the snap. The only restriction that the kicking team must follow is that only the widest man on the field may advance beyond the line at the snap while the others must wait until the ball is actually kicked.

EDITOR'S NOTE -- We got confused as to the difference between illegal touching and downing the ball, but Jerry cleared it up by saying there really isn't any difference. Downing the ball is illegal touching, and the officials signal it the same way, with hands to the shoulders. But it's a foul that carries no consequence; the receiving team just takes possession at the point of the foul. On a punt that bounces into the end zone, though, it's a touchback and the ball comes out to the 20. But here's an interesting kicker -- if a ball is illegally touched at the 25-yard line and goes into the end zone, the receiving team could choose to take the ball at the 25 –- the site of the infraction.

Can you explain the ruling of interception on this play from the Colts-Titans game? The situation was this: The receiver and defender both leave their feet to go after a pass. The receiver catches the ball while in the air. The two players make contact in the air, causing the receiver to twist. After the catch, the receiver first makes contact with the ground again on his back, which causes the ball to be jarred loose and pop into the air. The defender grabs the ball out of the air and is downed. I thought the ground couldn't cause a turnover after contact from a defender. -- Greg Simmons, Chicago

To complete a catch, the receiver must come down inbounds with the ball in his possession and hold onto it after contacting the ground. In your play, the catch has not been completed, which means that the loose ball is not a fumble, but part of the pass. When the ball bounces off of the intended receiver, the defender grabbing the ball out of the air is an interception and the defense gets the football. The ground cannot cause a fumble; however, this play was not a fumble.

Jerry, I appreciate you taking the time to do answer these questions. Monday evening in Charlotte against the Packers, there was a new call of 'unnecessary roughness' when the defense apparently grabbed the runner by the shoulder pads in the back. Is this a new ruling and does it apply on the line? -- Dick, Charlotte, N.C.

The unnecessary roughness that you refer to is called a "horse collar" tackle. The rule states that "All players are prohibited from grabbing the inside collar of the back or the inside collar of the side of the shoulder pads and immediately pulling down the runner." This does not apply to a runner who is in the tackle box or to a quarterback who is in the pocket. The tackle box is an imaginary rectangle that extends from the outside shoulder of one tackle to the outside shoulder of the other tackle. Thanks for your nice comment.

With the score tied, team A punts from their own 5-yard line as time expires in the fourth quarter. Team B makes a fair catch at Team A's 40-yard-line. Team A is flagged for illegal man downfield. Under this year's new rules, can Team B elect to take an untimed down at Team A's 35-yard-line? If so, can they attempt a fair-catch kick from there to win the game? -- Liam Feldman, Austin, Texas

You are correct. The receiving team can elect to take the 5-yard penalty from the end of the kick, which is the spot of the fair catch. That leaves the ball on the kicking team's 35-yard line. When a fair catch is made, the captain has two choices: A fair catch kick (drop kick or place kick without a tee, which must be made on or behind the spot of the fair catch) or a snap of the ball for a regular scrimmage play. If a fair catch kick is selected, the defensive team cannot get any closer to the kick than the 10-yard restraining area, which is the same as a free kick kickoff after a score.

When a runner is about to be tackled and he stiff-arms and grabs the facemask of a defensive player, why is no foul called? -- John Mat, Knox, Ind.

A runner can legally stiff-arm a potential tackler in the facemask. He cannot, however, grasp the facemask of a defensive player to avoid being tackled. A 15-yard facemask foul will be called on the runner in the second situation.

Copyright © 2005, ChicagoSports.com

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MessageSujet: Re: L'échiquier vert (©Oleo) - Questions sur les règles du jeu   Ven 28 Oct - 9:41

Citation :
Ask Jerry Markbreit
Former NFL referee Jerry Markbreit answers readers' questions every week throughout the season.

October 26, 2005, 10:55 AM CDT

Is it a touchdown if a player catches a ball in the front corner of the end zone (with possession and two feet in-bounds) but then falls out-of-bounds without breaking the plane of the goal line? -- Jon Vitale, Fowlerville, Mich.

In your play situation, it is not a touchdown. It is a touchdown when a runner advances from the field of play and the ball touches the opponent's goal line or goal line plane. Feet in the end zone with the ball in the field of play or out-of-bounds short of the goal line is not a score.

Can you jump up and block a long field goal at the crossbar -- David Hitt, Dallas

The answer is no. Not only is the act prohibited, but it carries a 15-yard penalty for unsportsmanlike conduct. The rulebook defines this act as "goal tending." The rule states that "goal tending by a defensive player leaping up to deflect a kick as it passes above the cross bar of a goal post is prohibited." The referee could award three points for a palpably unfair act or assess a 15-yard penalty from the previous line of scrimmage.

Jerry, I'm confused on something. If an offensive player reaches the ball on or over the goal line while his body is not in the end zone, it's a touchdown. Then why isn't a ball considered out-of-bounds when a runner or receiver is holding or catching the ball over the sideline while his feet are in bounds? -- Steve Poppe, Portland, Ore.

A player is out-of-bounds when he touches a boundary line or anything other than another player or a pylon that is on or outside a boundary line, regardless of where the ball is. The ball would then be positioned at the in-bound spot where it was when the player touched the boundary line.

I was watching the Bears-Vikings game and the referee called a false start on the offense and said it was an illegal snap by the center. How can there be an illegal snap of the ball? -- Lloyd Reed, Iowa

An illegal snap by the center falls in the category of false starts. The rulebook states, "The snapper may not move his feet abruptly from the start of the snap until the ball has left his hands, nor may he use any other body movement to simulate the start of the play. This act shuts the play down immediately and a 5-yard penalty is assessed."

I have a question about intentional grounding to settle a debate I had with a friend last Sunday. My friend and I both agree that it is not intentional grounding for an NFL quarterback to throw a ball out of bounds with no receivers in the vicinity, provided he is outside the pocket and that the ball lands at or beyond the line of scrimmage. However, we disagree on how the rule applies to other players. He believes that if the ball is pitched by the quarterback to the halfback during an option play that the halfback will be called for intentional grounding if he throws the ball out of bounds (in the same kind of situation). … I believe that the exception from the intentional grounding penalty … applies to the passer, no matter what position he plays. Who is correct? -- David McFadden, Pittsburgh

Dear David: After such a long question, I am glad to give you a very short answer. You are absolutely correct: All rules regarding intentional grounding read as follows: "Intentional grounding will be called when a passer facing an imminent loss of yardage because of pressure from the defense throws a forward pass without a realistic chance of completion, providing, of course, that he is in the pocket."

I was watching a Pro Bowl game a couple of years ago, and the game was close and one side attempted an onside kick. During the kick, the ball bounced in the air like it was supposed to, but instead of just catching it, the kick returner waved his hands up in the air and called for a fair-catch. Is this legal? Because if it was, why don't teams do it more often on on-side kicks? It is the perfect situation, because you are not allowed to touch someone who makes a fair-catch. -- Trevor Seivert, Rockford, Ill.

A fair-catch signal may be made while any kick is in flight by a player who is beyond the line of scrimmage or the free kick line and fully extends one arm above his helmet and waves it from side to side. The reason you rarely see this is because most onside kicks hit the ground before they go up in the air, thus prohibiting a fair-catch signal. Kickers now top the ball, making it go down off the tee and then bounce into the air, giving the kicking team a better chance to recover the ball. It is rare in today's game to see an onside kick go directly into the air without hitting the ground first.

Are coaches who are not in the stadium allowed to communicate with coaches/players? For example, Rams coach Mike Martz missed the game vs. the Colts while recovering at home. Is he allowed to call the coaches in the booth and/or on the field and offer his thoughts? -- PJ Fenton, Boston

Mike Martz, or any other coach who is incapacitated and not at the game site, could call any of his coaches to discuss matters if he so wishes. There are no prohibitions of any kind under NFL rules.

Copyright © 2005, ChicagoSports.com

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MessageSujet: Re: L'échiquier vert (©Oleo) - Questions sur les règles du jeu   Mer 2 Nov - 12:28

Citation :
Ask Jerry Markbreit
Former NFL referee Jerry Markbreit answers readers' questions every week throughout the season.

November 1, 2005, 5:33 PM CST

Can a personal foul for a late hit out of bounds be challenged? It appeared in Monday night's game the Ravens were called for a late hit when the ball carrier still had both feet in bounds. --John Eisenmann, Burlington, Vt.
Under the current replay system personal fouls of any kind cannot be challenged by either the coach or the replay official. The only fouls that can be reviewed are touching of a forward pass by an ineligible receiver, which is a five-yard penalty; touching of a forward pass by a defensive player, which would nullify a defensive pass interference call; an illegal forward pass from beyond the line of scrimmage; and 12 men on the field by either team.

If an offense or special teams unit, with no timeouts, commits a penalty on fourth down during the last play of the game with no time left on the clock, does that play have to be replayed, does the game end, or can the defense decline the penalty and take the spot of the ball? That situation could have happened this Sunday with 3 seconds on the clock and a lot of people speculating that Bears punter Brad Maynard should have just run around with the ball and downed it rather than punting it and giving Detroit's Eddie Drummond a chance to return it for a touchdown. --Ryan, McHenry, Ill.
If the offensive team fouls on the last play of the game, regardless of the down, there is no replay and the game is over. This offensive foul negates any score that might have been made by the offense on that play. If the defensive team fouls on the last play of the game, regardless of the down, the game is extended by one untimed down free from foul by the defense. If the last play of the game is a punt and the return team is fouled by the kicking team, the return team is given an untimed down as stated above.

About the fourth quarter play in the Bears-Lions game in which Jeff Garcia was called for intentional grounding, I feel that the officials got the play right. But my question is, the initial call was that the play was a backwards pass that was picked up and returned for a TD by Hunter Hillenmeyer or was it? I guess I was confused and thought that if the officials were going to overturn it, it required a Detroit challenge. Instead, they overturned the call first, then the Bears had to challenge to get it reviewed. Is that proper procedure? --Mike Bulthaus, Chicago
This play was handled properly by the game officials. After the play was over, the officials talked and it was decided, without replay, that the ball had been thrown forward by the Detroit quarterback. When that decision was made, it was reported to the referee that there was no eligible receiver in the area where the pass landed, and, consequently, intentional grounding was correctly called. Detroit did not challenge because after the conference, the ruling on the play was reversed by the officials. The Bears' challenge was made to prove that the officials were not correct. This challenge cost the Bears a time out.

Watching the Bears-Lions game on Sunday I believe something really dangerous happened. Lions corner R.W. McQuarters hit Bears quarterback Kyle Orton late and out of bounds. He was rightly flagged for it, but on the same play the Bears committed a holding penalty which unbelievably offset the unnecessary roughness penalty. This basically tells me that if the defense knows that the offence has a penalty against them, they can hit the QB or anyone else they want to, as late or as dangerous as they like. Surely these penalties shouldn't offset each other. Why does a hold for 10 yards and a penalty for 15 yards offset each other anyway? Neil Young, Inverness, Scotland
If there is a double foul (a foul by both teams) on a play without a change of team possession, the penalties are offset and the down is replayed at the previous line of scrimmage. If it was a scrimmage down, the number of the next down and the necessary line to gain is the same as for the down during which the fouls occurred. There is one exception to this offset rule and it is as follows: If one of the fouls that occurs is a 15-yard penalty and the other foul would result in a five-yard penalty only, the major foul is enforced and the minor foul is disregarded. The penalty is enforced from the previous line of scrimmage. This is the only provision in the rules that provides relief based on the severity of the foul. In your play, under the rules, the holding penalty and the late hit out-of-bounds are considered the same with regard to offset.

Jerry, at the end of the 1st half of the Bills-Patriots game, the Pats lined up for a field goal with seven seconds left but were called for a delay of game. They were moved back 5 yards and missed the kick. Why wasn't there a 10-second runoff to end the half? --Charles Jake, Cincinnati
In order to have a 10-second runoff, the clock has to be running when the foul occurs. The clock was stopped at seven seconds when the delay of game was called. The 10-second rule is very complicated, but in a nutshell, it can only be enforced during the last minute of either half by an offensive foul occurring at the snap. For example a false start or an illegal motion.

When a ball carrier steps out-of-bounds, is the ball marked at the spot where he first stepped out or is the ball marked where the ball is once the player steps out? --Andre Banks, Washington D.C.
When a player with the ball in his possession steps out-of-bounds, the spot where the ball will next be put in play is determined by the location of the ball when the player steps out.

In Sunday's Bears game, the referee said over the PA system that the Lions had declined their opportunity for a fair catch kick. I've known about this rule for a long time, and have patiently waited to see one, but this is the closest I have ever seen a team actually using it. Did you ever see it on your watch? When was the last time an NFL game saw a fair catch kick? --Adam Pavlik, East Lansing, Mich.
Yes, I have seen two fair catch kicks attempted during my 23 years in the National Football League. Neither kick was successful, but it was exciting, nevertheless. Earlier this season the Tennessee Titans attempted a fair catch kick. It was no good. You must remember that the circumstances must warrant this decision because a missed field goal attempt--and that is what this is--must be returned to the spot where the kick was made.

Copyright © 2005, ChicagoSports.com

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MessageSujet: Re: L'échiquier vert (©Oleo) - Questions sur les règles du jeu   Jeu 17 Nov - 15:10

Citation :
Ask Jerry Markbreit
The former NFL referee answers readers' questions each week through the season

November 10, 2005, 12:16 PM CST

First off, thanks for answering our questions every week. Great Job. In Sunday's Packers-Steelers game, I found an offsetting penalty call interesting. After the Packers snapped the ball, Brett Favre threw an incomplete pass towards the end zone. Two flags were thrown: illegal shift and pass interference. If the illegal shift took place first, which it did, how come the pass interference call even mattered? Thanks for clearing this up. --Earl, Benbrook, Texas
You're welcome, Earl. Any number of fouls can be called during a play, and they all must be enforced or offset, depending on the situation. In your play, an official on the line of scrimmage or the referee calls the illegal shift. Pass interference is called by downfield officials, who generally are not aware of any foul called at the line of scrimmage. No foul takes precedent over another and when both teams foul without a change of possession, it is always an offset situation unless one of the fouls is a five-yard penalty and the other is a 15-yarder. In this case, only the 15-yard penalty would be enforced.

Could you explain the college rule which gave Illinois two points when they ran back a failed PAT attempt by OSU? And why two points? --D. Cohen, Chicago
Under NCAA rules, the defensive team may legally advance an unsuccessful point after touchdown. If they cross the opponent's goal line, two points are awarded. This rule does not exist in the NFL. When a point after touchdown is unsuccessful in the NFL, the play is dead by rule with no advance allowed by the defense. In college, they are awarded two points because the original team was attempting a two-point conversion, so running it back in reverse, you're awarded two points.

In Indy's Monday night whipping of the Patriots, Bill Belichick challenged a touchdown out of what appeared to be spite when the Colts lined up for a two-point conversion ahead by nearly three TDs. Can the officials call a penalty on a coach for such nonsense? What was the point? There really was nothing to challenge. Isn't this some sort of delay tactic? --Adam Spelling, Chicago
Any play can be challenged before the next snap or play is run. However, there is a 15-yard penalty for initiating a challenge with no timeouts or challenges left. Losing a time out is the penalty for calling for a replay. In your play, New England was charged with a time out because the replay revealed that the correct call had been made.

Is the crossbar considered out of bounds? It seems like it would be, but what would be the call in the unlikely scenario that a player jumped so high for a catch that a part of his body (not the ball) touches the crossbar and then lands with both feet in-bounds? Is it a catch? What if the contact with bar occurred before the pass was caught? --Brandon Fish, Austin, Texas
Sometimes the crossbar and uprights are inbounds and sometimes they are out of bounds. When an attempted point after touchdown or field goal hits any part of the goal post and rebounds through, the kick is successful. In this case, the entire goal post remains inbounds. If a punt strikes any part of the goal post, the ball is dead immediately because it has gone out of bounds. The same thing exists for a pass that hits the crossbar. In your play, the player who touches the crossbar before catching the ball is considered out of bounds and therefore cannot be the first player to touch the ball. No catch.

Jerry, can you explain the difference between offside, unabated to the quarterback offside, encroachment and delay of game by the defense? --Justin, Orlando, Fla.
An offside penalty is committed when a player is in the neutral zone at the snap of the ball. Unabated to the quarterback is when a defensive player charges across the line and is on his way to the quarterback before the ball is snapped. Encroachment is when a defensive player makes contact with an offensive player at the line of scrimmage prior to the ball being snapped. And delay of game by the defense is when a defensive player who is within a yard of the line of scrimmage makes a non-football move in an attempt to draw the offensive player into a false start. A non-football move would be jerking the body or arms or head in such a way as to trick the offense into moving without the defender actually coming into the neutral zone.

When a quarterback calls an audible that forces multiple players to shift, bringing the fullback into a splitback formation and moving an X receiver to the slot, what keeps this from garnering a flag for illegal motion? I was under the impression that if two or more players where in motion on offense at the same time, this was a penalty. --Richie
A shift is the action of two or more offensive players, who prior to the snap, after having assumed a set position, simultaneously change the position of their feet by pivoting to or assuming a set position with either one foot or both feet. Any number of offensive players can change positions, as you describe. But all must be stationary for one full second when the ball is snapped. Only one offensive player can be legally in motion when the ball is snapped. It's a penalty for two or more players in motion only if they fail to stop before the snap.

Is there ever a time in either NFL or college where the play will be called dead due to a player's helmet falling off? --Tom Shugrue, Wethersfield, Conn.
At no time under NFL or college rules would a play be stopped because a player's helmet coming off. It is a dangerous situation, but play continues. There is, however, an unsportsmanlike conduct foul when a player of either team purposely removes his helmet during or after a play is over. This act carries a 15-yard penalty.

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MessageSujet: Re: L'échiquier vert (©Oleo) - Questions sur les règles du jeu   Jeu 24 Nov - 16:28

Citation :
Jerry Markbreit's answers
The former NFL referee answers readers' quetions each week throughout the season

November 23, 2005, 11:51 AM CST

Can a team that loses possession of the ball on offense be granted points for a safety? For example, Team A throws deep, but the pass is intercepted at the 2-yard line by a cornerback. His momentum, however, carries him into the end zone, where he is tackled for a 2-yard loss. Is this a touchback or a safety? --Robert Guico, Carol Stream, Ill.

It is not a touchback or a safety. The ball is placed on the 2-yard line where the catch was completed and awarded to Team B. This is a special intercepting momentum rule. If a defensive player catches a pass in the field of play and the momentum carries him into the end zone where the ball is declared dead in his team's possession, Team B is awarded the ball at the intercepting spot. Even if the intercepting player were to fumble the ball in the end zone, the recovery by Team A would not result in a score. Momentum plays are really "delayed dead balls." The only thing that the intercepting team can do is run the ball out of the end zone and then all bets are off.

On an LSU punt in the LSU-Ole Miss game, the ball hit an LSU player at the Ole Miss 10-yard line and then advanced out of bounds at the 1. However, the ball was placed where the LSU player first touched it at the 10. If the ball is touched by a member of the kicking team and continues to roll forward, can the ball be picked up and advanced by the receiving team? --Craig Cormier, Iota, La.

Whenever a member of the kicking team touches a punt or place kick beyond the line of scrimmage before a member of a receiving team touches the ball, a bean bag is thrown by the covering official, indicating a spot of illegal touching. This spot is an insurance policy for the receivers and unless they foul and the penalty is accepted, they may take the ball at the spot of illegal touching or at the spot where the play ends, whichever is most advantageous for the receiving team. So, finally, in answer to your question, the receiving team can pick up and advance the ball after it has been illegally touched, and even if they fumble and the kickers recover, the receivers get the ball at the bean bag spot.

Fifty seconds to go in the game, the clock is running. The offense, who is winning, commits a false start penalty. When the referee enforces the five-yard penalty, does the clock restart on the whistle or snap of the ball? --Pat, Horsham, Penn.

A false start with the clock running in the last minute of the half or game is not only a five-yard penalty, but also includes a 10-second runoff. The clock will be stopped when the foul occurs. It will be started on the referee's ready-for-play signal after the 10 seconds has been run off the clock.

On a short high kickoff, with a fair catch signaled by the receiving team, is it still a free ball and catchable by the kicking team so long as the receiver is not interfered with? Can a member of the kicking team jump and snatch the ball out of the air before it gets to the player signaling a fair catch? --Dave, Omaha

The answer to your first question is, yes. If there is no receiver in the area when a short kickoff comes down, the kickers are allowed to catch and keep the ball, providing it has traveled the necessary 10 yards. The answer to your second question is, "No." A kicking team player must give the receiver an unmolested opportunity to make the catch, and snatching the ball out of the air while it is on its way to a player of the receiving team is interference.

What ever happened to the rule against spiking the ball after being downed on the field of play? Was this changed or is it just ignored because of "No Fun League" criticism? --Steve, Budapest, Hungary

Under NFL rules, a runner down in the field of play is prohibited from spiking the ball so that it bounces away from the covering officials trying to get the next play set up. This is a five-yard penalty for delay-of-game. However, this is rarely called because the players are given a lot of leeway. It is a very emotional game, and a lot of common sense goes into the interpreting of rules such as these.

During an NFL game, who has the ability to communicate with players on the field, and which players are these? Is this communication open at all times? If not, who controls turning it on or off? Is there any concern about the signals being intercepted by someone else? --Charlie McCalla, Bloomington, Ind.

In the NFL, there is a coach to quarterback radio system that can be used on each play for a limited amount of time. There is a coach to quarterback timer in the press box, with a switch that controls this system. When the ball is blown dead on a play, the coach to quarterback timer opens the switch, allowing the coach and the quarterback to communicate. It is shut off with 15 seconds remaining on the play clock. I seriously doubt that there is much concern regarding someone intercepting the messages from coach to quarterback as I am sure they are in code.

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MessageSujet: Re: L'échiquier vert (©Oleo) - Questions sur les règles du jeu   Jeu 24 Nov - 17:48

Merci de poster régulièrement tes trouvailles, moi ca m'intéresse malgré que je ne comprenne pas tout !!!
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MessageSujet: Re: L'échiquier vert (©Oleo) - Questions sur les règles du jeu   Ven 9 Déc - 15:43

Citation :
Ask Jerry Markbreit
The former NFL referee answers readers' questions about the rules of football each week

December 1, 2005, 10:25 AM CST

I noticed on Sunday that Kyle Orton threw the ball near the sideline and either he threw it to the wrong area or the receiver ran the wrong route. The play was called intentional grounding. Is this sometimes a judgment call or is there some kind of rule for a play like that? --Sean, Cocoa, Fla.

When Kyle Orton threw the pass in question, he was in the pocket, which is between the tackles and the pass landed in an area where there was no eligible offensive receiver in the vicinity. This is intentional grounding and it was correctly called in the game. If the quarterback moves out of the pocket and throws a ball in an area where there is no eligible offensive receiver, he needs to get the ball in the vicinity of the line of scrimmage in order to avoid intentional grounding. There, of course, is a degree of judgment involved in all intentional grounding situations, and the referee needs input from the wing officials as to whether or not receivers were in the area.

Watching the NFL lately, I've noticed referees tossing a black object onto the field. I assumed it was some kind of yard marker used to spot the ball after a play, but then I saw referees throwing them down on punt returns, for example, at the spot of the catch. What are these objects used for? --Mike, Cannon Falls, Minn.

The object that you see being thrown by NFL officials is a blue bean bag. All officials carry a bean bag to mark the spot of a fumble or the spot where possession was gained on a punt. There are penalties that are enforced from the spot of the fumble or the spot where possession was gained on punts. The bean bag gives you a spot of enforcement and they're used in collegiate, high school, and professional football officiating.

During the Bears game Sunday, a Tampa punt bounced from the field of play up in the air toward the goal line. A Bucs player leaped and caught the ball in the air while his momentum carried him and the ball into the end zone. As he came down in the end zone, he threw the ball back into the field of play and a touchback was ruled. I say the reason for the touchback was because his foot hit the ground in the end zone before he released the ball. My buddy says it was because the player and ball crossed the plane of the goal line in the air, immediately causing the touchback. What do you say, oh wise one? There's $10 riding on your ruling. --Steve Poppe, Portland

You are absolutely correct. The kicking team player touched in the end zone as he was batting the ball back into the field. This is a touchback by rule. Had the kicking team player batted or thrown the ball back into the field, the ball would have been put in play where it was ultimately recovered. The Bears would have put the ball in play inside the five-yard line instead of getting it on the twenty, which they did. When a kicking team player crosses the goal line in the air, he is not considered to be in the end zone unless he touches the ball there while he is touching the ground. You win your bet.

Why is a facemask penalty, committed by the defense behind the line of scrimmage, marked off at the spot of the tackle instead of the line of scrimmage? It often rewards the defense if the tackle is for loss of yardage. --Tony Navarro, Chicago

Under NFL rules, there is a penalty enforcement called a "behind/behind." This means that when the offensive player fails to get back to the line of scrimmage and he is fouled by the defensive team behind the line of scrimmage, the enforcement spot is either the spot of the defensive foul or the spot where the ball became dead. The normal enforcement spot, as you suggest, is the previous spot, and this is one of the few exceptions.

Most officials look to be in their mid-50s or older. Do they have offseason workout routines that are mandatory, such as physicals or endurance tests to maintain their high level of quality? --Maurice Smith, Chicago

Most officials in major college and professional football are between 35 and 60 years old. The collegiate officials are younger. The NFL officials' average age is around 49 to 50 years old. The officials work out on a yearly basis and have to pass physical and endurance test in order to be able to work in their respective conferences. The officials are in terrific condition and if they are not, they will lose their position as an onfield official.

Let's say the quarterback pitches the ball to a running back who then looks to throw the ball downfield but no receivers are open. The back then throws the ball to an area where there are no receivers. Could intentional grounding be called on the passer if he was inside the tight end box, similar to what would be called on a quarterback? --Robert Lahti, Beach Park, Ill.

Intentional grounding may be called when the passer throws the ball into an area where there are no eligible receivers if he is in the pocket. A passer who is out of the pocket need only get the ball close to the line of scrimmage, even if no eligible receiver is in the vicinity. The passer, by definition, is anyone on the offensive team who passes the ball beyond the line of scrimmage. In your play, the running back becomes the passer, and if he does not meet the criterion stated above, intentional grounding will be called.


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Ask Jerry Markbreit
The former NFL referee answers' readers questions each week during the season

December 7, 2005, 11:16 AM CST

In a recent Detroit Lions game, the quarterback, operating out of the shotgun position, pitched the ball to a running back, who, in turn, rolled to the right, pulled up as if to pass. It was apparent that the intended receiver was the quarterback who was out on a route but covered. The back ended up not throwing and took a small loss. The television analyst mentioned that the quarterback is only an eligible receiver if he is working from the shotgun, he would be ineligible if he took the snap from center. Is this correct? If so, is this unique to the NFL? I have seen high school quarterbacks take a snap from center, pitch it to a back, and then go out for a pass, which was completed to him with no infraction. Also, in the above mentioned Detroit game, would the defense be credited with a sack? --Thomas J. Kiernan, Joliet

The television analyst was correct. A shotgun quarterback is an eligible receiver. The only backfield position that is not an eligible receiver is the T-formation quarterback who takes his stance behind the center. To become an eligible pass receiver, a T-formation quarterback must assume the position of a backfield player, as in the shotgun, at least one yard behind the line of scrimmage at the snap. This rule is unique to the National Football League. Under NCAA and high school rules, the T-formation quarterback is eligible. In the play in question, the defense would not be credited with a sack. In order to get credit for a sack, the defense must tackle the player who received the snap from center.

You answered a similar question last week; I was wondering the following: Fourth down, 9 seconds to go in the game, 2 seconds remain on the play clock, the clock is running. The offense, who is winning, commits a false start penalty. Is the 10-second rule enforced and therefore is the game over? --Jim Drost, Jacksonville, Fla.

In your play, the 10-second rule is enforced only if the defensive team does not object to the runoff. The defensive team can always decline the runoff and only have the false start penalty enforced. In this case, the clock would start on the next snap.

I was watching the Bears/Packers game and had a question or three about a personal foul called on the Bears' Tank Johnson when he hit Brett Favre. What the heck is "punishing the quarterback with his weight"? What exactly was Johnson supposed to do in that situation? Is the next step to start putting airbags on QBs? --Brian Cook, Huntington Beach, Calif.

Roughing the passer was correctly called in this game. The rule states, "When tackling a passer who is in a virtually defenseless posture, a defensive player must not unnecessarily or violently throw him down and land on top of him with all or most of the defender's weight. Instead, the defensive player must strive to wrap up or cradle the passer with the defensive player's arms." The Bear defender drove the quarterback into the ground with his full body weight.

I have been reading your mailbag for several years, great job. You wrote a few years ago that in each quarter there are five TV time outs, but is seems this season there have been a great deal more per quarter. In Sunday's Patriots-Jets game there were four TV time outs in the last two minutes of the first half alone. Has the five TV timeout rules changed? --Al Embree, Champaign, Ill.

Thank you very much. The television timeout format in NFL games is still five in each quarter. A sixth timeout is allowed if television inserts a commercial during an injury or a replay timeout. What you saw in the Patriot/Jet game was a series of 30-second timeouts called by the teams during which television took short commercials at their own risk. A 30-second timeout exists when a team calls the timeout and television has either used all of its commercials or decides not to take a commercial at that time. I know that this sounds complicated because it is.

If I am correct that the kicking team can recover but cannot advance a muffed punt, what is the purpose of that rule? Also, does the muff rule still apply if the kick returner catches the ball cleanly and runs several yards before fumbling? --George McDougall, San Juan, Puerto Rico

The NFL rule is that the kicking team cannot recover and advance its own kick until it has passed into the possession of the receiving team. A muff is not possession but merely touching and the kickers can recover and keep the ball but not advance. When the kick returner catches the ball and runs several yards and loses the ball, it is a fumble, not a muff.

During the fourth quarter of the Broncos-Chiefs game, John Lynch was flagged for a unsportsmanlike conduct. He was trash talking the referee. How severe is the verbal abuse before the ref throws the flag? --Bjarke Hojgaard, Aalborg, Denmark

Football is a very rough, emotional game. Tempers flare and things are said that no one really means. It is very rare for an official to flag a player for abusive language. I do not know what was said in the game that you refer to. I do know, however, that the officials always give a player a chance to back off before penalizing.

With about two minutes to go in the third quarter of the Bears-Packers game, Brett Favre completed a pass and was obviously in pain after the play, holding his throwing wrist. The Packers were flagged for having 12 men in the ensuing huddle, and the training staff came out on the field to attend to Favre as the referee conferenced with the umpire and then made the call. Why was the training staff allowed on the field without any type of timeout being called, and why wasn't Favre forced to sit out a play after being checked out on the field? Thanks for your informative column. --David Knorowski, Chicago

Injuries occurring outside of two minutes remaining in the second and fourth quarters are charged to the officials, not to the teams. The clock is stopped for the injury and started when the injured player leaves the game, if the clock was running at the end of the play. A team is allowed to use a timeout in order to keep the injured player in the game. I am sure that is what happened in the Bears-Packers game.

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MessageSujet: Re: L'échiquier vert (©Oleo) - Questions sur les règles du jeu   Jeu 29 Déc - 10:26

Citation :
Ask Jerry Markbreit
The former NFL referee answers readers questions each week during the football season.

December 15, 2005, 1:51 PM CST

Tom Brady was called for a crack-back block that resulted in a 15-yard penalty. I looked up the rule and it says, "eligible receivers who take or move to a position more than two yards outside the tackle may not block an opponent below the waist if they then move back inside to block." Tom Brady was not an eligible receiver because the ball was snapped while he was under center and the only way he would be an eligible receiver is if were in the shot gun position. Is this a case of two rules contradicting each other? --Matthew Garcia, Amherst, Mass

The definition of a crack-back block is as follows: At the snap, an offensive player who is aligned in a position more than two yards laterally outside an offensive tackle, or a player who is in a backfield position at the snap and then moves to a position two yards laterally outside the tackle may not contact an opponent below the waist if the blocker is moving toward the position where the ball was snapped from, and the contact occurs within an area five yards on either side of the line of scrimmage. Your definition of said block was pretty good; however, eligible receiver is not included in this rule.

In your Nov. 23 answers, you wrote NFL officials spend 30-40 hours a week in preparation for games. What exactly is this preparation? And, are officials able to handle other careers at the same time? --Dale Norton, Madison, Wis.

After returning home from each game, the weekly preparation begins with review of the television video of the game they just worked supplied to each official as he leaves the stadium. Complete review of this video takes approximately five hours. The next day, each official receives the coach's DVD, which includes each play of the game viewed from the sideline and the end zone. This review takes anywhere from five to 10 hours.

A weekly 50-question exam must be worked out at home to be discussed at the next pre-game meeting, and this takes four or five hours to properly answer the play situations, which vary from week to week. For example one week might be on passing plays all involving penalty enforcements, then timing situations, players substitutions and equipment, free kicks, scrimmage kicks, backwards passes, forward passes, fair catches, scoring, player conduct, non-player conduct, sudden death procedures, etc.

Each crew has several conference calls weekly to discuss the game videos and to reply to the league office regarding certain plays.

The ongoing conditioning program varies, but each official spends approximately an hour a day working out. Some officials spend more time than others, but 30 hours of preparation a week is not an exaggeration.

The officials are able to handle their regular jobs, but it is a difficult task to juggle all of the responsibilities of both officiating and regular employment.

Love your column, great job. When a quarterback throws a pass to a receiver who is behind him, it's a lateral rather than a forward pass and the receiver could then throw a forward pass. Could a defender hit the intended lateral receiver before the ball reaches him? Also could the downfield defenders hit the intended forward pass receiver before the ball reaches him because of the lateral occurring before the pass? Isn't this the same as a tipped pass? --Tom Cichon, South Bend, Ind.

When a lateral or backward pass is thrown, the intended receiver is not protected and can be hit before the ball arrives. The intended receiver cannot be tackled, but he can be pushed aside, giving the defender a chance to catch or recover the backward pass or lateral. Because this is the only forward pass thrown in this game, eligible receivers beyond the line of scrimmage are protected and cannot be interfered with. The only difference is illegal contact. Once the quarterback leaves the pocket or throws the ball out of the pocket, downfield defenders can contact the eligible receivers, as long as the ball is not in the air. This is not the same as a tipped pass, where all defensive pass interference rules are disregarded.

Can you explain the call made in the end zone during the Packers-Lions game last Sunday night? I thought that a player cannot purposefully fumble the ball forward to gain yardage, yet that's what it looked like Samkon Gado did. How was this different? --Benjamin Leaf, Highland Park, Ill.

The play you refer to was ruled a forward pass, not a fumble. Samkon Gado was given the ball in his own end zone, and when he arrived close to the line of scrimmage, he realized that he was going to be tackled in the end zone. So he threw the ball forward beyond the line of scrimmage. Because he was the passer and was out of the pocket, he did not have to get the ball near an eligible receiver. Consequently, intentional grounding was not called. It may have looked like a fumble, but it was a pass.

Is it possible for a quarterback to roll out of the tackle box, then come back inside of it and be flagged for intentional grounding? --Adam Fischer, Tinley Park, Ill.

Once the quarterback leaves the tackle box, or pocket, as it is generally called, he is considered to be out of the pocket, even if he returns, as you suggest. He can be called for intentional grounding if his pass does not land on or near the line of scrimmage. No eligible receiver need be in the area in this situation.

I've seen you write about the 10-second runoff rule. Can you explain what it is and the reasoning behind it? --James, Grand Rapids, Mich.

After the two-minute warning of either half, while the clock is running, if the score is tied or the team in possession is behind in the score and the offensive team has exhausted its legal timeouts, an additional timeout may be requested and granted for injury to a player. However, the ball shall not be put in play until the time on the game clock has been reduced by 10 seconds. The reason for this rule is to keep teams from faking injury in order to stop the clock.

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MessageSujet: Re: L'échiquier vert (©Oleo) - Questions sur les règles du jeu   Jeu 29 Déc - 10:27

Citation :
Ask Jerry Markbreit
The former NFL referee answers readers' questions every week during the season

December 21, 2005, 1:18 PM CST

After watching Atlanta coach Jim Mora draw an unsportsmanlike conduct foul in the Sunday night game in Chicago, I was wondering if the NFL officials are allowed to eject members of the coaching staff? --Mark, Champaign

Under NFL rules, there shall be no unsporstmanlike conduct by a substitute, coach, attendant, or any other non-player entitled to sit on a team's bench during any period of time, including between halves. For illegal acts under this rule, a 15-yard penalty will be assessed. There is no provision for ejection of a coach under NFL or NCAA rules.

On Nathan Vasher's interception in Sunday's Bears-Falcons game, there was a lot of confusion. The ruling on the field was that Vasher intercepted the ball and then advanced. Because the two-minute warning came at the end of the play, ESPN went to commercial while the play was being reviewed. What ruling were the Falcons challenging--whether it was an interception, an incomplete pass, or whether Vasher was down by contact? Can teams challenge all the rulings on the field in one fell swoop? This play ended with 1:59 left in the first half. Is a play that begins before the two-minute warning but ends at the two-minute warning able to be challenged, or can it only be reviewed by the video replay official? -- Greg Weisman, Jackson, Miss.

I believe the challenge by the Falcons was that the receiver was down by contact before the ball bounced up in the air. A team is only allowed to challenge one thing that they feel is incorrect on the play. The replay official cannot institute the replay system until the two-minute warning has been announced by the referee. This play, which ended at 1:59 left in the first half, was still under the jurisdiction of the coach's challenge. As a side note, whenever a challenge is made by a coach and something other than what he challenged is changed, he is not charged with the timeout under replay rules, even though his original challenge was correctly ruled on the field.

In the second half of the Bears-Falcons game Sunday night, the officials said that the Falcons had two timeouts remaining. But the Falcons had called a timeout on the first play of the half and then had lost a challenge on an interception. Someone said that after the challenge, the official said that the Falcons would not be charged with a timeout. I thought all lost challenges (made by the coach) resulted in a lost timeout. --Peter, Chicago

When the Falcons challenged the ruling on the field, something other than the actual challenge was changed and the result was that they were not charged with a timeout. This is a special replay rule, which is rarely discussed by the media.

Tackling a runner solely by grabbing his hair: legal tackle or penalty? --Joe, Birmingham, Ala.

Any player who has his hair sticking out of his helmet is fair game. A defender can grab that hair and fling the player to the ground with no danger of penalty, providing he does not grab the face mask or inside of the helmet in doing so.

Could you please describe the equipment that is available to the replay official in the booth and the referee on the field? Does it allow them to see more than one viewing angle at the same time or slow the speed down to frame-by-frame? What training do the replay officials and referees receive to help them make accurate calls under such scrutiny and time pressure? Thanks! -- Matt McCully, Hudson, Ill.

The replay booth is equipped with high-speed digital equipment that uses the television pictures to produce the end result. The line feed from television is recorded on an eight-segment split screen, which means that this piece of equipment can hold eight different angles, if they are available. These images are transferred to an ultra slow motion monitor and the best ones are sent down to the referee who can view them on a sideline monitor. This process is clear, precise and very quick. The replay officials are trained just like the officials to operate in this high-pressure environment. When the referee looks into the monitor, he is discussing what he sees with the replay official, and the two of them have a dialogue which helps the referee make the final decision. This is a terrific system that works very well for NFL football.

The replay booth in each stadium has three people working together to produce the images seen on the field by the referee. There is a video technician, who is responsible for all equipment functions, a replay official, and a video operator, who runs the slow motion monitor. This team works very hard to produce the results that you see when replay goes into action.

When a player fumbles and the ball goes out of bounds, is it the last person to touch the ball that gets possession, or does it go to the person that last had possession? -- April Patterson, Oak Harbor, Wash.

When a ball in a player's possession is fumbled and goes out-of-bounds, the ball belongs to the team last in possession and not the last to touch it. Any fumble forward and out-of-bounds under NFL rles is returned to the spot of the fumble and the clock is started on the ready-for-play signal.

Please explain the plane on the goal line and how it differs from the sidelines and yard lines and maybe the endline. Thanks. -- Bill Patton, Boiling Springs, S.C.

The goal line plane is unique under NFL rules. When a player breaks the plane of the goal line with the ball in his possession, it is a touchdown, even though the player's body may be in the field of play. This plane extends to infinity and if a player crosses the goal line with his body and the ball extended over the sideline, it is a touchdown because of the invisible plane. The sidelines and endlines do not have the same magic; however, if a player has the ball extended over the sideline or endline and his body is completely in the field of play or the end zone, the play is not ruled out of bounds in the field or the end zone.

In a recent game played in Atlanta, Michael Vick dove from the field toward the pylon in the corner of the end zone with the ball extended out-of-bounds. His hand passed over the pylon while the rest of his body and the ball continued out-of-bounds. The play was correctly ruled a touchdown because he had qualified under the goal line plane described above.

Citation :
Ask Jerry Markbreit
The former NFL referee answers readers' questions every week during the season.

December 28, 2005, 12:00 PM CST

What is meant by "football move." I heard the term when the Bears played the Atlanta Falcons and I have never heard it before. --Susan J. Venecek, Elkhorn, Wis.

In order to have a completed catch of a forward pass, the receiver must come down inbounds with both feet touching the ground and begin to run with the ball in his possession. This is a "football move." The receiver must take actual steps after landing inbounds. If both feet land inbounds with the ball in possession and during the first step the ball comes out, it is an incomplete pass.

Could you please explain the down-by-contact rule? I was curious about the a play in the Giants-Chiefs game where the receiver made a nice catch and it appeared that his shin touched the ground as defenders attempted to tackle him. The receiver escaped and scored. From the replay, it appears that his knee was not down. I saw this replay on a NFL network show where a former referee was explaining the rule. From my understanding, the receiver should have been called down and the TD nullified. His explanation was somewhat confusing, so would you please give me the scoop? --Stephen, Michigan City, Ind.

A runner is down by contact when he is contacted by an opponent and subsequently goes to the ground with anything other than his hands or feet. If, after the contact, he regains his equilibrium, and then goes to the ground, he is not down by contact. In the play that you describe, the officials ruled that the receiver's leg had not hit the ground and they allowed the play to continue. This play was challenged and replay was inconclusive. Whenever a ruling on the field is made, only conclusive evidence can affect a change.

Hello, Jerry, during the Dec. 18 Bears-Falcons game, Atlanta coach Jim Mora challenged an interception call. Field reporter Suzy Kolber was on the Falcons sideline with her ESPN camera crew and their equipment, which included a flat-screen monitor. During the challenge, Mora walked over to the monitor and watched a replay of the game. I assume it was the feed from the ESPN broadcast. Having been at the game myself I know that the scoreboard does not show the same replays as the television broadcast. TV broadcasts typically show more replays from different angles than what is shown in the stadium. After I got home I watched the game again via a DVR and was shocked to see that a sideline reporting crew was providing a single team a replay off their monitor. Isn't this against NFL rules? It certainly is against the concept of good sportsmanship. I thought each team should have the same technology at their disposal, and no team can have an advantage, other than the fan's cheering. I can remember watching a game when a coaching staff was asked to remove their headsets because the power to the opponent's headsets had been lost. Could you please clear this up, was this against NFL rules? --Mike Taran, Chicago

The field reporter for network television is on the home sideline for half the game, and the visitor's sideline for the other half. The equipment includes a flat screen monitor. Both teams get the advantage of possibly looking at this monitor for half the game. Coach Mora was not restricted from looking at this monitor as long as he stayed in his coach's area. The headset rule dictates that if the headsets for one team malfunction, the other team is required to stop using their headsets until power is restored.

If a point after attempt is blocked can an offensive player pick it up and advance it to score two points? --Shawn Sawyer, Southaven, Miss.

Under NFL rules, once a try for point is blocked, the play becomes dead and neither team may advance the ball. If the try is a play from scrimmage and not a kick, all regular rules regarding legal advances remain intact.

Being a high school official, I've never understood the rules surrounding the clock being stopped when the QB is sacked. What is the rationale for stopping the clock in this situation, and what conditions are needed for the clock to actually be stopped? --Mark Dexter, Plainfield, Conn.

This rule only exists in the National Football League. The reason is to allow the deep receivers time to return at or near the line of scrimmage before the clock starts again. Several years ago, this rule was modified. Now the clock is not stopped on sacks during the last two minutes of each half.

If the QB crosses the line of scrimmage and throws a ball for an interception is the play dead and the penalty enforced or does the defense retain ball from the interception? --Tom, Boca Raton, Fla.

Whenever an illegal forward pass is thrown from beyond the line of scrimmage, the play continues and the intercepting team can decline the penalty for the illegal forward pass and take the result of the play. There are no fouls under NFL rules that stop plays once the ball has been snapped.

My question is this: What is the deal with the time limit given to referees on looking at instant replays? When the timer goes down to zero, does the review television turn off? How does that work? --Michael Wenger, Skokie, Ill.

Once a call on the field is either challenged by a coach or is stopped by the replay official during the last two minutes of either half, special timing rules go into effect. Once the referee looks into the field monitor, he has 90 seconds to make his decision. Once the 90-second marker is reached, the review is over and the monitor is shut down from the replay booth. The extra time taken by the referee before or after his viewing of the monitor is not counted in the 90-second rule.

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MessageSujet: Re: L'échiquier vert (©Oleo) - Questions sur les règles du jeu   Jeu 5 Jan - 10:12

Citation :
Ask Jerry Markbreit
The former NFL referee answers readers' questions every week during the season.

January 4, 2006, 12:40 PM CST

When did the NFL change the rule to require that a receiver land with both feet touching the ground rather than one? I have spent too much time listening to family members bicker about this and want to end the arguing! --Kathleen Dachille, Cockeysville, Md.

The National Football League was formed in 1920. In order to be different from the college rules that existed at that time, the two-foot catch rule was born. It has lasted all these years and is truly the major difference between NCAA and NFL rules. In my opinion, getting both feet in on a great sideline or end zone catch is one of the highlights of any NFL game.

I find this to be a statistic abnormality: When a player intercepts a ball in the end zone or a ball is returned from the end zone, that player gets credit for the yards he gains from the spot of the run. How come when a QB throws a TD pass in the end zone, neither he nor the receiver is credited with the extra yards? --Al Embree, Champaign, Ill.

Your question is a good one. I honestly cannot tell you why these differences exist. The people who do the statistics are those who determine the entire yardage awarded on different plays. Two that you did not mention are a punt, which has yardage credited from the line of scrimmage, and a field goal, which is credited from the spot of the kick. I wish that I could give you a solid answer to your question, but my sources tell me that the present system is the fairest for all concerned.

In 1994 when they instituted the two-point conversion, I seem to recall that the offensive team had to inform the officials if they were going to attempt a two-point play. Is this true? Can the offense line up for an extra point kick and then throw or run for two? --Jeff McOmber, Oakdale, Conn.

When the two-point conversion was included in NFL rules, the teams were not required to inform the officials of their intention of going for two points. This would put the scoring team at a great disadvantage. What if a bad snap from center got away from the holder and another offensive player ran the ball in for a successful try? Football is a game of strategy and the offense must be given the opportunity to run an occasional trick play.

During the 2005 Holiday Bowl, Oregon's punter walked out of the back of the end zone, then came back in play before the snap. He then punted the ball. I thought that if a punter stepped out of the back of the end zone it was a safety? --Jeff Terry, Munster Ind.

When the Oregon punter stepped out of the back of the end zone, he merely had to reestablish his position by stepping back with both feet into the end zone before the ball was snapped. The punt was perfectly legal under NCAA rules. If the punter had been standing on the end line when the ball was snapped and received said snap while still out-of-bounds or before getting both feet back in play, it would have been a safety.

On two-point conversions, could a team "launch" a small player over the line of scrimmage (while he has possession of the ball) to easily score the two points? --Erik Flowers, Los Angeles

I assume what you mean by "launch" is throwing this small player over the line of scrimmage in order to score two points. This is illegal and is covered under the section of the rules that prohibits assisting the runner, except for legally blocking for his advance.
[ça me rappelle quelque chose... Very Happy ]

During the Bears-Packers game on Christmas Day, Muhsin Muhammad caught a touchdown pass, then celebrated by doing a "duck walk" with the ball. He then leapt in the air and chest-bumped teammate Justin Gage, then went on to chest-bump two other Bears. Don't NFL rules regarding end zone celebrations prohibit pre-planned celebrations involving multiple players and is there a penalty for this? --Mark Early, Arlington, Va.

The taunting rule states that "an unsportsmanlike conduct foul will be called when two or more players engage in prolonged, excessive, premeditated, or choreographed celebrations." In the Bear-Packer game, the action that you describe does not fall under the taunting rule. The players must be given an opportunity to celebrate, as long as they don't violate the above rule.

As an avid reader of this column I know your were smiling a little on Sunday when Doug Flutie successfully attempted a drop kick. It seemed the Patriots tipped off the officials that they were going to try a drop kick as there was only one official under the goal post instead of the standard two. I thought that during a drop kick, the opposing team is not allowed to rush in to attempt a block, but the Dolphins seemed to try to block it. Also, what is the difference between a drop kick and a free kick after a punt? --Patrick Flynn, Hadley, Mass.

I am glad that you enjoy the column, and you are correct about my smiling when I heard about Doug Flutie's successful drop kick! This is my 50th year being involved with football at all levels, and I have never seen a drop kick. I doubt if the officials were notified of the drop kick because, if they were, there would have been two officials under the goal post to make the ruling. The reason only one official was in that position was because the formation looked like a two-point try. The only time the defense is not allowed to rush in and attempt to block a kick is when a fair catch kick is awarded. A fair catch kick is an option when a successful fair catch is made and the receivers choose a free kick from the spot of the catch with the defense restricted from being any closer than 10 yards from the spot of the kick.

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MessageSujet: Re: L'échiquier vert (©Oleo) - Questions sur les règles du jeu   Ven 13 Jan - 10:10

Citation :
Ask Jerry Markbreit
The former NFL referee answers readers' questions every week during the season.

January 12, 2006, 3:18 PM CST

In your Dec. 28 column, you explained a "football move." My question is, does the receiver have to make a football move when catching a pass in the end zone or is it a touchdown the instant he gets two feet down? –-Joe Mustian, Chicago

It is not a touchdown when the receiver makes a catch with both feet down in the end zone and immediately loses the ball. He has to hold it for more than an instant in order to receive the score. In the judgement of the officials, the catch has to be made in a solid manner with no quick loss of possession.

Must a drop kick "always" touch the ground? The rulebook can be interpreted in many ways: yes, no or either. --Bobby Matos, Chicago

A drop kick is a kick by a kicker who drops the ball and boots it as, or immediately after, it touches the ground. I know interest in drop kicks was piqued when Doug Flutie successfully drop kicked an extra point. It has been a long time since anyone has made a drop kick in the NFL. Actually, the last successful drop kick was made in 1941. The reason for the demise of the drop kick is a change in the shape of the football. The ball has evolved from a balloon-type ball to the streamlined pointed edge, passing missile that it is today.

Why does the clock continue to run when a receiver runs out of bounds like Chad Johnson did during second quarter against the Steelers? This has been bugging me for a long time. --Todd Hillier, Bangor, Maine

When a runner goes forward and out of bounds with the ball in his possession, the clock is stopped and is started again on the referee's "ready for play" unless this occurs during the last two minutes of the second quarter or the last five minutes of the fourth quarter. If the runner is driven out of bounds in a backward motion, the covering official will give an arm signal signifying that the clock continue to run because a forward progress point had been established before the runner went out of bounds. It all depends on which direction the runner is going with relation to the line of scrimmage.

In their playoff game, both Carolina and New York lost the opportunity to challenge obvious fumbles because of the "down by contact" rulings. Why did the NFL decide that a "down by contact" ruling should not be reviewable? Furthermore, if the point of having video review is to make sure a call is correct, shouldn't the officials let every play finish out -- without ever making a down by contact ruling -- since the referee can resort to the video in the case of a potential fumble? --Michael Nepple, St. Louis

When a runner is ruled down by contact, the covering official blows his whistle, thus, killing the play. The reason it is not reviewable is because the whistle prevents the defensive team from successfully recovering the ball if it was fumbled and prevents the offensive team from further advancing the ball because of the whistle. The purpose of replay is to make sure that certain calls in the game are corrected if an error is made. The officials never blow their whistle for down by contact unless they are absolutely sure the runner IS down by contact.

Is the onside punt still legal? --Tod Maher, Monterey, Calif.

The only time a punt may be used on a kickoff is a safety kick--one made by a team after a safety has been scored, awarding their opponents two points. This kick must be made from the team's 20-yard line, unless a penalty is involved. If a placekick is used, no kicking tee is allowed. If a punt is used, which it usually is, an onside punt may be attempted. If the kicking team recovers after the kick goes 10 yards, they are entitled to keep the ball.

Say a receiver makes a leaping catch along the sidelines, lands with one foot inbounds, hops on that foot, remaining inbounds, then brings the second down out of bounds. Is this a catch? Is one foot in bounds twice the equivalent of two feet in? --Bryan Schwerer, Cary, N.C.

There is an old saying coined by John Madden: "One knee equals two feet." This is true; however, both feet must land inbounds in order to have a successful catch. If the receiver lands on one foot and hops on the same foot so that the foot touches inbounds twice, it is an incomplete forward pass. If the receiver touches inbounds with ANY part of his body other than hands or feet, he has completed the requirement for a successful reception.

Jerry, I love the column. I have one question that is still bothering me from Saturday's playoff game between the Redskins and Buccaneers. I wonder why you can fumble 1/100th of a second after crossing the plane of the goal line or catch a pass and just barely get both feet inbounds in the corner of the end zone and still get a touchdown. But if you catch a ball in the middle of the end zone, and get both feet (or a knee) down in the end zone, and fumble upon falling to the turf, you are denied the touchdown. How can the rules be so contradictory on the requirement of establishing possession after a catch in the end zone (i.e., you must maintain possession after falling down), compared to the leniency of awarding a touchdown once the plane of the goal line has been crossed. --Howard L., Fort Wayne, Ind.

Thank you very much for enjoying the column. What you describe in your question is absolutely true: The reason for a touchdown being awarded when a player in possession crosses the plane of the goal line and then immediately fumbles is because the rulebook states that, "When a runner advances from the field of play and the ball touches the opponents' goal line plane, it is a touchdown." The pass reception occurs IN the end zone and, therefore, does not carry with it an instantaneous score. The catch has to be made and held for a touchdown to be awarded.

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MessageSujet: Re: L'échiquier vert (©Oleo) - Questions sur les règles du jeu   Ven 13 Jan - 14:23

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Ask Jerry Markbreit
The former NFL referee answers readers' questions every week during the season.

January 12, 2006, 3:18 PM CSTMust a drop kick "always" touch the ground? The rulebook can be interpreted in many ways: yes, no or either. --Bobby Matos, Chicago

A drop kick is a kick by a kicker who drops the ball and boots it as, or immediately after, it touches the ground. I know interest in drop kicks was piqued when Doug Flutie successfully drop kicked an extra point. It has been a long time since anyone has made a drop kick in the NFL. Actually, the last successful drop kick was made in 1941. The reason for the demise of the drop kick is a change in the shape of the football. The ball has evolved from a balloon-type ball to the streamlined pointed edge, passing missile that it is today.

A ce propos, les arbitres ont été "prévenus" qu'il allait se passé quelque chose lors de ce Dolphins-Patriots puisque ces derniers ont quand même demandé aux instances officielles de l'arbitrage NFL si ce genre de kick était toujours valables Mr. Green
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MessageSujet: Re: L'échiquier vert (©Oleo) - Questions sur les règles du jeu   Jeu 19 Jan - 10:34

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The former NFL referee answers readers' questions every week during the season

January 17, 2006, 4:47 PM CST

In the Bears playoff game on Sunday, it was apparent that the play clock expired before the Bears snapped the ball on the play Rex Grossman threw an interception. Could the Bears have challenged the play asking for a five-yard penalty for a delay of game and gotten the ball back since no play should have occurred? --Clarke Scanlon, Johnston, Iowa

The back judge is the onfield official responsible for the play clock. When the clock hits double zero, the back judge looks at the quarterback, and if the ball has been snapped, it is not a delay of game. In other words, there is at least a full second delay from the time he looks at the clock and then looks at the quarterback. The offensive team is always given the benefit of the doubt by this method of calling delay of game. Coaches are not able to challenge delays and other clock situations under the present replay rules.

What do you officials always talk about in that little huddle you go into after you call a penalty? --Daniel, Indiana

The refs do not huddle after each penalty is called. When they do huddle, it is to make sure that the official making the call has seen everything involved in the play. Sometimes, an official away from the play can have some input into the final decision. An example would be a defensive pass interference call by the back judge; and, then, with input from the field judge who tells the back judge that the pass was not catchable, the flag is picked up and the referee announces, "There is no defensive pass interference because the ball was not catchable." This is a good process that makes the officiating more accurate.

It didn't affect the outcome, but it could have affected the play calling. I think the refs blew the penalty enforcement in the Bears game when Thomas Jones was face-masked and fumbled at the 1-yard line trying to reach the ball out over the pylon. The foul was assessed at the spot of the foul, but since the foul occurred during a run behind the spot of the fumble, the enforcement spot should have been at the spot of the fumble (the 1-yard line, not the 6-yard line). Am I correct? This caused the Bears to go with a riskier running play when they probably would have used a QB sneak, if the ball was at the 1-yard line. I am a Bears fan even if they are playing the Panthers. Otherwise, I pull for both of them. --Bob Milroy, Durham, N.C.

You are not correct. Under NFL rules, a foul by the defensive team followed by a loss of team possession is enforced from the spot of the foul or the spot where possession was lost, whichever hurts the fouling team the least. This is an exception to the enforcement rules, and is called, "a hurts-the-least." In the play, the ball was fumbled from the field and went out of bounds in the end zone, thus, creating a loss of team possession. Consequently, the hurts-the-least penalty enforcement was invoked.

There were two instances this weekend where the commentators were saying that if the ball went through the back of the end zone after it was knocked out of the runner's hand it would be a touchback and be awarded to the other team at the 20-yard line. One instance was when Champ Bailey was caught at the 1-yard line after his interception in the Denver-New England game, and I didn't understand what rule they were talking about. Could you please clarify for me? --Alice Ritzman, Kalispell, Mont.

The definition of a touchback is: "When an impetus (force) by a team sends a ball behind its opponents' goal line, it is a touchback." In the Bear game, the ball was fumbled, which was the force into the opponents' end zone; thus, creating the touchback. However, the Bears were saved by a defensive foul; thus, negating the touchback. In the Champ Bailey play, he was ruled down by contact and no touchback was awarded; but, it was discussed by the commentators. When a touchback is ruled, the ball is awarded to the defending team at their own twenty-yard line.

What would happen if a non-participant in a game (like a coach, ref, or player on the sidelines) were to enter the field and tackle a player about to score? Like if someone were about to return a punt, and had no one in front of them, and Bill Cowher just ran onto the field and tackled them. Would they be awarded the TD? Would it just be unsportsmanlike and they'd get 15 yards? --Todd Gaimonzki, Greensburg, Penn.

Under NFL rules, there is a section called, "palpably unfair acts." The rules state that, "A player or a substitute or anyone else on the sideline shall not interfere with a play by any act which is palpably unfair." The penalty for this unfair act is: "Offender may be disqualified. The referee, after consulting with his crew, enforces any such distance penalty as they consider equitable and irrespective of any code penalty. The referee could also award a score."

Please explain the rule "in the grasp" on a quarterback. Is this infraction called as much as it was a few years ago? --Joe Waligora, Chicago

A number of years ago, the in the grasp rule stated that, "If the quarterback was in the grasp of an opponent, the referee was to blow the whistle and end the play, declaring forward progress." This rule was changed in order to give the quarterback a better chance to escape and complete his forward pass. The new rule states that, "If the quarterback is in the grasp of an opponent, and another defensive player is bearing down on the quarterback, the in the grasp rule is invoked." This gives the quarterback a chance to get away from a single tackler, but protects him from the hit by the second tackler while he is in the grasp.

I'm 22 years old, but I remember from attending NFL games during the early '90s one of the officials firing a gun to end a quarter. Whatever happened to that practice? Thanks Jerry! --Matt Lozar, Buffalo, N.Y.

You are correct that a starter's pistol was used to signal the end of each quarter of the game. The practice of using the gun ended around 1980. The NFL decided that the use of the gun in a sporting event was inappropriate and that the whistle ending each period would have to suffice. To my knowledge, the only gun that is used in sport today is the starter's pistol in track and field.

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MessageSujet: Re: L'échiquier vert (©Oleo) - Questions sur les règles du jeu   Mer 25 Jan - 15:34

Citation :
Jerry Markbreit's answers
The former NFL referee answers readers' questions every week throughout the season.

January 24, 2006, 2:18 PM CST

Early in the fourth quarter of the Steelers-Colts playoff game, Pittsburgh was set to gamble on fourth and inches. While the Pittsburgh QB was calling the signals, the offensive guard flinched (this was not seen by the officials). The Colts defense, thinking it was a false start, jumped over the line of scrimmage, but did not make contact with the offensive line. At this point, the Steelers right guard stood up and the referees came running in to in effect declare a "do-over." In this situation, doesn't a flag have to be thrown for either the false start or encroachment? I've never seen a "do-over" before in the NFL. --Jim Thompson, Regina, Saskatchewan

A "do-over" is not a common occurrence in the NFL; however, it occurs when a play such as the one you describe has no definitive foul connected to it. A false start was not called on the offensive team and the defense did not encroach (Encroachment is when the defense touches an offensive lineman prior to the snap.). When all was said and done, the referee had no choice but to declare a do-over by reporting via his microphone that were no fouls on the play. Common sense officiating dictates the outcome of plays when nothing really happens.

I recently found a copy of the 1961 NFL title game on DVD. At one point, the Giants faced a fourth-and-goal from the Packers' 6 and passed incomplete into the end zone. The result of the play was a touchback, and the Packers took over possession at their 20. When did that rule change? I don't remember seeing that in my 40 year lifetime. --Paul Junio, Oconomowoc, Wis.

The rule awarding a touchback to the defensive team on an incompletion in the end zone was changed in 1975. Prior to the change, an incomplete pass and a punt into the opponents' end zone were treated the same and a touchback was declared, awarding the ball to the defensive team on their own 20-yard line. The rules committee decided that passes and kicks should not be considered the same with regard to end zone; and, consequently, the previous line of scrimmage became the defensive team's first down spot, regardless of from where the ball was snapped.

Jerry, are players names required to be on the back of the jersery's or is a team by team thing like baseball? --Patrick Flynn, Hadley, Mass.

Under NFL rules, all players are required to have their names on the backs of their jerseys. It is not optional. The fans in the stands and the television audience always want to know the names of the players and this is a way of making sure that they are kept informed. It also is a great help to the broadcasters who need instant identification when plays occur.

How is it that Seattle is not called for crowd noise fouls in their stadium? --Kevin Joyce, Kill Devil Hills, N.C.

Crowd noise fouls are the result of the visiting offensive team being unable to call their signals successfully. The process starts when the quarterback appeals to the referee to quiet the crowd. The referee stops play and announces that the crowd noise must cease in order for the game continue. If the crowd noise continues, the referee announces, once again, that if the noise does not cease, the home team will be charged with a timeout. If the noise continues, play is stopped and a timeout is charged. If the home team has no timeouts remaining, a five-yard penalty for delay of game is assessed. This process, however, is rarely seen in today's games because the quarterbacks know that they must get the snap off, regardless of how loud the crowd noise is. Quarterbacks in today's game snap on silent signals so that voice does not have to initiate the snap. Once the game is stopped for crowd noise, the noise usually gets louder; and, consequently, quarterbacks deal with the noise rather than appeal. This is the reason that Seattle is not penalized for crowd noise.

In the AFC championship game, Hines Ward was flagged for "illegal formation - wide receiver covering up the tight end." Obviously this instance was a mistake, but is this always a penalty, or could the tight end have declared himself as ineligible and avoided the flag? --Todd Drury, Portsmouth, R.I.

Any time an eligible pass receiver is covered by another eligible receiver, the formation becomes illegal. The penalty is five yards from the previous line of scrimmage. Once an eligible receiver is covered, there is no way to avoid the foul. He cannot report as an ineligible receiver. Only ineligible receivers can report that they are now playing at an eligible position. I am sure that if you listen closely to the referee's announcements during games, you will hear "Number 75 is an eligible receiver." This announcement allows this player who is numbered ineligible to receive a pass legally.

Why are some offensive penalties enforced from the line of scrimmage while others are enforced from the spot of the foul? --Steve Grady, Locust Grove, Ga.

Generally, all offensive penalties that occur behind the line of scrimmage are penalized from the line of scrimmage. However, if the foul occurs in a team's own end zone (such as holding), a safety will be awarded instead of a yardage penalty. If a run goes beyond the line and an offensive foul occurs behind the run but beyond the line of scrimmage, the enforcement spot is the spot of the foul. If, on a running play, the offensive foul occurs beyond the spot where the run ends, the enforcement spot would be the end of the run and not the spot of the foul.

Can you please explain the definition of a "football move"? Is the definition different if the player has fallen to the ground or if the player is still on his feet? --Jim Dowd, Atlantic City, N.J.

A completed catch of a forward pass is one where the receiver must come down inbounds with both feet touching the ground and begin to run with the ball in his possession. This is a football move. The receiver must take actual steps after landing inbounds. If both feet land inbounds with the ball in possession and during the first step the ball comes out, it is an incomplete pass. If a receiver catches a pass and goes to the ground untouched by an opponent and then loses the ball on his way up in an attempt to run, it is an incomplete pass if, in the judgement of the official, the player has not held the ball long enough to be considered a football move.

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MessageSujet: Re: L'échiquier vert (©Oleo) - Questions sur les règles du jeu   Jeu 2 Fév - 9:50

Citation :
Ask Jerry Markbreit
The former NFL referee answers readers' questions every week during the season

January 31, 2006, 11:31 AM CST

I've enjoyed your explanations of football's rules in this column this season. Is there a rule you'd like to see changed? Personally, I'd like to see the rule that the ground can't cause a fumble thrown out, but I was wondering if there were any rules you think could be changed to improve the game? - Phil from Wheaton

If being an official in the NFL for 23 years has taught me one thing, it is to learn the present rules and enforce them. I think the rules as they stand are the best in all sports, and I truly have no suggestions for future rule changes. Each February, the competition committee of the NFL meets to discuss possible rules changes and those that the committee feels are worthy of change are then presented to the 32 NFL owners at their March meeting. Remember, that the ground cannot cause a fumble if the runner in possession is contacted by a defender before he hits the ground. A runner untouched who hits the ground and fumbles is not ruled down and the ball continues in play.

What is the purpose behind the rule that a fumble out of the end zone results in a touchback? It seems, in my opinion, that it would be more fair to spot the ball at the point of the fumble, as with other forward fumbles. It seems to be bad for competition for a change of possession to hinge on something as trivial as the direction a fumbled ball takes near the goal line. Is there some reason I don't know about. Thanks! Miguel, Aurora, Co.

This is by rule a touchback and the ball is awarded to the defensive team at their own 20-yard line. The purpose of the rule is to send a message to the offensive team that they must retain possession of the ball when they approach their opponents' goal line or this severe ruling will take place. A forward fumble that goes out of bounds under NFL rules is returned to the spot of the fumble, unless it is fumbled forward and out of bounds in the end zone. This results in the touchback discussed earlier and supercedes the fumble forward out of bounds rule. In my opinion, this is a good rule, and has been around for a very long time.

What determines who the home team is in the Super Bowl? - Tom, Nevada

The determination of home team and visiting team in the Super Bowl is rotated on a yearly basis. This year's Super Bowl has the AFC as the home team and the NFC as the visitors.

Are there any limitations as to what technology a team can have with them on the sidelines? In a recent game I say players looking a several small TV monitors inside of a team colored box. -- Al Embree, Champaign

The small monitors that you observed were part of the camera system allowed in each bench area for still photos of the action by either team on the field. These pictures are used as a teaching tool for the teams before they go back on the field. They show formations and possible areas where improvement could be made. This is the only type of equipment allowed on the sideline, with the exception of the head phones that the coaches use to communicate with the press box.

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MessageSujet: Re: L'échiquier vert (©Oleo) - Questions sur les règles du jeu   Ven 10 Fév - 10:30

Savourez, c'est la dernière de la saison.

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The former NFL referee files his last column of the season

February 8, 2006, 3:22 PM CST

Near the end of the first half of the Super Bowl, the Seahawk receiver was ruled out of bounds. On replay, he gets his left foot in and his right shin grazes the pylon, it actually starts falling before his left leg kicks it. Is this not a touchdown? --Dan, Ashburn, Va.

The rule states that a receiver must get both feet inbounds with the ball in his possession to complete a catch. In the play in question, his left foot did get in, but the second foot hit the pylon, which is out of bounds in the end zone; thus, making the play an incomplete pass. These are very tight plays and this one was ruled correctly by the onfield official and confirmed by the replay official, which is why the play was not challenged from the replay booth.

On the illegal man down field penalty, how far down the field is a lineman allowed to go while the quarterback is behind the line of scrimmage? Is there anything else affecting this call? --Max Salk, Northbrook, Ill.

Under NFL rules, it is a foul when an ineligible offensive player, including a T-formation quarterback, prior to a legal forward pass advances beyond the line of scrimmage after losing contact with an opponent at the line of scrimmage. The guidline for officials to use is the offending player must be more than one yard beyond the line of scrimmage prior to the pass.

Mr. Markbreit, when is it important in a game not to make a call and "let them play"? --Michael Bergman, Metamora, Ill.

It is always important to let them play, but this must be accomplished within the rules. The hallmark of good officiating is for officials to know what not to call. The fouls jump out at you as an official and you are certain that it should be called. Whenever there is any doubt regarding a play, the call should not be made. This is a tough business and the officials do a tremendous job in this regard.

What is so egregious about the kickoff going out of bounds that it merits placing the ball on the 40-yard line? I don't understand the thought process on this one. --Bob Corsale, North Las Vegas

There are several reasons, in my opinion, why the ball is placed 30 yards in advance of the spot where a kickoff was made when the ball goes out of bounds untouched by a receiver. The first reason is to keep teams from purposely kicking off out of bounds so the receivers cannot return the kick. This severe penalty eliminates the situation. The second reason is to move the game along at a good pace by not re-kicking the ball with a five-yard penalty. Years ago, all out-of-bounds kickoffs were kicked over. This took a lot of extra time.

In Super Bowl XL there was controversy as to whether Pittsburgh QB broke the plane of the goal line. Where does the goal line begin? Is it the beginning of the chalk line or the end of the chalk line? Is it the beginning of the chalk line at the field of play? Or is it the end of the chalk line in the end zone? --Tim, La Plata, Md.

"Each goal line marking is to be in its end zone, so that the edge of the line toward the field of play (actual goal line) is thirty feet from the inside edge of the end line. Each goal line is to be eight inches wide." This is a quote from the NFL rule book. In other words, the goal line begins on the chalk line nearest the field of play.

I need to understand the rule for the low block after an interception from the offensive member attempting to make a tackle, like during the Super Bowl with Hasselbeck. --Gary Natali, Clay, N.Y.

When a pass is intercepted, both teams are restricted from blocking below the waist. When a passing team man dives low in an attempt to tackle the intercepting player and, in the process, blocks a member of the intercepting team below the waist, even though he may make the tackle, a foul for illegal low block should be called. It does not matter whether the passing team player is attempting to make a tackle. If he intentionally goes low and, in the process, hits an opponent below the waist, it is an illegal block.

Is "down by contact" a phrase actually used in the NFL rules? Does the "contact" have to be instrumental in the player going down or is any touching or contact sufficient to make a player "down by contact" so that "the ground cannot cause a fumble." This was relevant to a call in the Super Bowl. I concede that the Pittsburgh player touched the Seattle runner, but it was questionable whether the touching caused the runner to go down to any degree. Thanks. Look forward to your response. --Timothy Riordan

An official shall declare a dead ball and the down ended when a runner is contacted by a defensive player and he touches the ground with any part of his body, except his hands or feet. Contacting a player under this rule could be touching, grabbing, bumping, or any other type of contact. There is no strict definition of contact. The call in the Super Bowl was absolutely correct when the Seattle runner was ruled down by contact. In this case, the touching or slight grabbing by the Pittsburgh player was enough to satisfy the rule.

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MessageSujet: Re: L'échiquier vert (©Oleo) - Questions sur les règles du jeu   Mar 7 Mar - 11:30

Une petite news pas très fraiche mais qui pourrait avoir son importance si le changement était voté, ce que j'espère.
Citation :
Fumbles May Get a Different Look

By Mark Maske
Washington Post Staff Writer
Friday, February 24, 2006; 12:30 PM


INDIANAPOLIS -- The NFL's competition committee again is considering changing the instant-replay rules to try to ensure that plays involving fumbles are called correctly.

Committee members have had a series of meetings here this week and, according to one member, have talked about the possibility of proposing a rule change that would affect plays in which game officials incorrectly rule that a ballcarrier was down by contact before losing the ball on a fumble. Under the current rules, the defensive team cannot be awarded possession on such a play even if it recovers the ball and an instant-replay review shows that a fumble indeed occurred before the ballcarrier was down by contact.

The proposal would allow the referee to award possession to the defensive club after a replay review on such a play. The competition committee made such a proposal last year but the measure fell four votes shy of gaining the 24 votes among the 32 teams necessary for approval.

The committee will resume its deliberations when members meet over eight days just before the annual league meetings begin in late March in Orlando, and will decide then what recommendations to make to the league's team owners.

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MessageSujet: Re: L'échiquier vert (©Oleo) - Questions sur les règles du jeu   Ven 19 Mai - 7:59

Parce que c'est pas exclusivement le topic des Q&A sur l'arbitrage...
Un papier intéressant (bien qu'il parle surtout des cowboys) de Pat Kirwan de nfl.com à propos de la possible prolifération des formations à 2 TEs la saison prochaine.


Citation :
This is where the offense is headed

By Pat Kirwan
NFL.com Senior Analyst



(May 17, 2006) -- Just before I came on the air for my daily radio show at Sirius Radio last week, Bill Parcells was being interviewed and I listened to what the Tuna had to say about where he thought NFL offenses were headed in 2006.

Jason Witten may get plenty of passes, but could also be used on tons of blocking assignments
Parcells made a very interesting point about why his Cowboys selected tight end Anthony Fasano (Notre Dame) in the second round. The Cowboys, like every other NFL team, has multiple needs. And unlike many other teams, the Cowboys already have an elite tight end in Jason Witten. Parcells said, "There are more favorable matchups right now in the NFL when you can come out in two-tight end sets than there are when you come out in three-wide receiver sets." It is a very powerful statement about NFL offenses and defenses. I thought I would break down the matchup possibilities and discuss them with coaches around the league.

The defensive coaches stand on the sidelines and wait to see which personnel group enters the playing field before deciding what they will do on defense. So, let's start with the concept of running an offensive personnel group on to the field and the pressures it can put on a defense. If a team sends out two tight ends, two wide receivers and one running back, which we will call ACE personnel, the defense will usually respond with base defense personnel, which is four linemen, three linebackers and four defensive backs. If the defense happens to be a 3-4 package, it switches the number of linemen and linebackers, but the key is it still sends out four defensive backs. The matchup possibilities can favor the offense if it has an athletic tight end like Witten, Jeremy Shockey, Todd Heap, Antonio Gates, Tony Gonzalez or newcomer Vernon Davis. Some imagination in formations by any decent offensive coordinator and an offense can isolate one of the tight ends on a linebacker or safety and still have a quality strongside running attack option behind the other tight end. For example:

Code:
      TE    LT  LG  C  RG  RT  TE         
  (Witten)        QB      (Fasano)    WR    WR   
                    RB 


The quarterback will look to see how the defense is configured to the open tight end side. If he sees a 5-foot-11 safety singled up on his 6-5 tight end, he likes the matchup. If he sees a linebacker out on the open tight end, he likes it even more. If he sees some combination of safety/linebacker out there, he really likes the run options back inside, especially to the opposite of the tight end side. If the defense has any combination of two people on the open tight end and the extra safety in the box for the run game, then the two wide receivers are singled up on the corners with no safety help.

Coach Parcells' point was if he sent in a third wide receiver into the game for one of those tight ends, the defense will sub in an extra defensive back for a linebacker, and that shifts the advantage back to the defense.

The third corner, or nickel corner, on most teams today is a legitimate starter and usually plays more than 50 percent of the plays during the season. He can become a very effective blitzer from the slot. The defense knows there is very little chance for a lead blocker in the backfield to get out there on him, and the defense can disguise man and zone coverage schemes very easily.

Code:
                              CB       
      TE  LT  LG  C  RG  RT        WR 
WR                QB          WR       
                  RB               

Most defensive coordinators code personnel by how many wide receivers are in the game. Three- and four-receiver packages usually dictate five or six defensive back packages. But unless the down-and-distance situation is third and more than 6 yards, Parcells and other coaches with two quality tight ends like their chances against four defensive back defenses for a number of reasons.

They can usually reduce the number of quality blitz and zone-dog pressures teams can use against them. They can always motion one of the tight ends into the backfield to create a power lead play from a two-back set. They can create an extra gap to defend by lining up the two tight ends together, and they can get to a legitimate eight-man pass-protection scheme if they have to against pressure teams.

I asked an NFL defensive coach to think through the problems Dallas will pose this season in the two-tight end, two-wide receiver, one-running back personnel grouping, and his first comment was, "I'm glad we aren't playing them unless it's in the Super Bowl."

Here are some of the things that look real good on paper for the Dallas offense right now. As one coach said, "Consider the Kansas City offense has rarely had trouble moving the ball in this personnel grouping with Gonzalez and that they don't have Terrell Owens on the field as one of the wide receivers." Dallas can expect a number of opportunities when the opponent "rolls" the coverage to Owens, something teams rarely do against Kansas City or San Diego wideouts. When they do tilt the coverage to Owens, Drew Bledsoe knows he has Witten or Terry Glenn singled up, and the advantage goes to Dallas. If teams try to play Owens as if he wereEddie Kennison, then Owens wins more often than not. One secondary coach said, "Early in the year, Witten and Glenn may get a lot more opportunities than Owens, but things will shift back to T.O. later on."


Julius Jones could very easily go over 1,000 rushing for the first time in his career.
As my coaching friend pointed out, "The real winner in the new 'Dallas offense' should be running back Julius Jones. Priest Holmes, Larry Johnson, Tiki Barber and LaDainian Tomlinson are all great backs, but the running opportunities they get when they set up the offense the right way doesn't hurt their chances. Julius Jones is going to get more rushing plays with a blocker on every defender in the box than he has had in the past."

And, as the coach pointed out, "Bledsoe is the perfect guy to run the show." He will make very good play choices. Do the math! A man and a half on the flexed tight end, Witten, three defenders on Owens and Glenn, and all of a sudden the five Cowboy linemen and Fasano can get everyone blocked for Jones.

As for third-and-long, another coach added that if the Cowboys elect to stay in this personnel grouping on third downs in what would be considered very high pass-to-run ratio situations and the defense sends out nickel defense responding more to down-and-distance than personnel grouping, then guys like Bledsoe and Parcells will take the run options, and that will stress the defense even more.

When you look at the possible matchup problems in the red zone, especially with a team like Kansas City, which has been the top point producer over the past few years, it appears Dallas has the matchup game covered again. Also, it's a place Fasano could come alive because he definitely will get linebacker coverage down there, and he could resemble Parcells' old favorite, Mark Bavaro.

For now, it looks like Parcells, by drafting Fasano and signing Owens, finally has built an offense that has all the classic conflicts a coach could want heading into a season. Parcells said the matchups are more favorable for the two-tight end sets than the three-receiver sets and I agree.
Si les Niners pouvaient faire pareil avec VD et Eric Johnson... et Frank Gore.

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MessageSujet: Re: L'échiquier vert (©Oleo) - Questions sur les règles du jeu   Ven 19 Mai - 13:11

Double C a écrit:
[Si les Niners pouvaient faire pareil avec VD et Eric Johnson... et Frank Gore.

arrête !! rien que d'y penser, j'en ai l'eau à la bouche !!!
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MessageSujet: Re: L'échiquier vert (©Oleo) - Questions sur les règles du jeu   Ven 19 Mai - 13:33

Article très intéressant (non j'ai pas dit "pour une fois" Ced !!).

Vu comme ça c'est vrai que Dallas semble impressionant. T'es sûr que c'est pas TJS qui a écrit l'article ?

Sur la comparaison Fasano / Bavaro c'est vrai que ça se tient. Même types de joueurs, mêmes types de gabarit (ahh le foot du début des années 90).
En même temps, ça me fait marrer cette tendance à comparer un joueur avec un autre ..... tjs de la même couleur !
Fasano c'est le nouveau Bavaro; Davis s'il marche bien on dira que c'est le nouveau Sharpe ou le nouveau Gates. Si Jay Cutler cartonne on dira le nouveau Marino ou le nouveau Elway, jamais le nouveau Warren Moon et même si c'est un scrambleur on dira le nouveau Young plutôt que le nouveau Cunnigham !!!!
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MessageSujet: Re: L'échiquier vert (©Oleo) - Questions sur les règles du jeu   Lun 29 Mai - 11:01

Ca parle des Titans mais ça peut concerner beaucoup d'équipes.

Citation :
Titans hope less bulk makes a better lineman

By JIM WYATT
Staff Writer

It seems like yesterday when guards Benji Olson and Zach Piller were banging heads with mammoth Baltimore defensive tackles Tony Siragusa and Sam Adams.

But things have changed since 2000, and the Titans — and their guards — are adjusting. Nowadays, when it comes to size, the Titans think in some cases less might mean more.

They want Olson and Piller at a lighter weight so they'll be better equipped to take on 3-4 defenses.

"The league keeps evolving," offensive line coach Mike Munchak said. "We are going to where teams are playing more 3-4, so now you want more of an athletic-type guard. Five years ago it was all about lining up with 340-pound defensive tackles across from you, so you needed big guards to match up.

"The defense has changed … and you have to be able to match that or you'll have some mismatch problems."

Piller and Olson are listed at 315 and 320 pounds, respectively, on the team's roster, but they've played heavier than that recently, especially Olson, who's been closer to 330 pounds.

This offseason, Munchak said ideally the players could drop down to the 305-310-pound range, but could play around
310-315.

At a lighter weight, the players should be able to move better in open space, and also downfield.

The Titans are scheduled to play five teams this season that play the 3-4 (three down linemen and four linebackers), including their first four opponents — Jets, Chargers, Dolphins and Cowboys.

The Patriots also play the 3-4, while the Texans have ditched it to go back to the 4-3. Eight of the league's 32 teams now play the 3-4.

Against 3-4 teams, the guards have to be on the move more often while targeting speedier linebackers.

Former Titans Bruce Matthews and Brad Hopkins are among the players who played at a lighter weight later in their careers.

"It will help them move better and recover with what we are ask the guards to do," Munchak said. "I think they realize that, especially as they get older. There is a fine line and 330 — we don't need that any more. So I think the two of them are doing a good job of keeping their weight down.

"Plus, they want to play in the league a little longer and it will help. You have younger guys wanting to take their jobs and they want to put themselves in a position where they could play three or four more years."
Je suis assez sceptique quant à l'efficacité de guards plus légers. Peut-être qu'ils parviendront à mieux contenir les LBs blitzeurs mais ça risque de faciliter la tache des gros Nose Tackles en face. Confused

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