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 L'échiquier vert (©Oleo) - Questions sur les règles du jeu

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MessageSujet: Re: L'échiquier vert (©Oleo) - Questions sur les règles du jeu   Jeu 23 Nov - 14:19

Citation :
Ask Jerry Markbreit
The former NFL official answers reader questions each week during the season

November 21, 2006, 4:10 PM CST

Phil Simms was doing commentary during the Dallas-Indy game and he mentioned a suggestion he had for a rule change. He said there should be a 5-yard, running-into-the-passer penalty as a lighter version of roughing the passer. Who makes decisions like this for rule changes and do you know if a rule change like this has ever been discussed? --Kevin Pearce, Austin, Texas

NFL rules changes are recommended by a competition committee made up of coaches, general managers and administrative staff from the league office. The final decision comes from a meeting of the NFL owners. The suggestions for rules changes come from various sources, including the general public, officials and member teams. A lot of thought is put into each rules change. As far as I know, a running-into-the-passer rule carrying a five-yard penalty has not been discussed.

Thanks for the missed field goal answers last week. Can you briefly explain the rules on advancing and spotting of blocked field goals and does it make a difference it is third or fourth down? --Don Casturo, London

When a field goal is blocked behind and never crosses the line of scrimmage, the kicking team may recover and advance or merely recover. If it were third down, the next down would be fourth with the kicking team retaining possession. If the blocked kick goes out of bounds behind the line of scrimmage on third down, the receiving team takes over at the out-of-bounds spot. Whenever a scrimmage kick (punt or field goal) goes out-of-bounds, the kicking team gives up possession of the ball. Any blocked kick behind the line of scrimmage may be recovered and advanced by either team.

I appreciate the time you take to answer our questions. If a punted ball hits the camera wire as it was reported to in the Bears-Jets game, why didn't the Bears get to re-kick the ball? --Rich Hurley, Sioux Falls, S.D.

You are very welcome. I love writing this column.The onfield officials ruled that the punt missed the camera wire; and, consequently, the ball continued in play. If the ball had obviously hit the wire and drastically changed direction, "the gondola rule" would have come into effect. When any free ball strikes any object above the field of play, including lighting, sound equipment, wires stretched across the field or even birds, the down is replayed under this special rule. This rule was added to the rulebook years ago when punter Oakland Raiders punter Ray Guy hit the sound and scoreboard gondola on the roof of the New Orleans Superdome.

Late in the San Diego-Denver game, two successive personal fouls by Denver after a San Diego touchdown allowed the Chargers to kick off from the Broncos' 40-yard line. As a longtime reader and fan of your column, I know that the Chargers could not have kicked a 57-yard field goal on the ensuing kickoff. However, what if three successive personal fouls had occurred after a Denver safety, moving the spot of the San Diego free kick to the Denver 35-yard line. Could the Chargers then attempt a 52-yard field goal on the ensuing free kick? --Liam Feldman, Austin, Texas

Under NFL rules, no points can be scored on a free kick after a touchdown or a safety, even if the ball goes through the uprights. This same rule holds true for punts after safety has been scored. To my knowledge, the only football rules that allow scores on punts are the Canadian Football League rules. If the receiving team fails to advance a punt out of its own end zone, a one-point rouge is scored.

Jerry, New England used wide receiver Troy Brown, No. 80, as a defensive back in Sunday's game against the Packers. Did he have to report to the referee each time he played on defense because of his jersey number? --Jeff Nelson, Green Bay, Wis.

Troy Brown did not have to report on each play that he was in on defense because there are no restrictions regarding numbers for defensive backs. The rulebook states that defensive linemen should be numbered 90-99 and linebackers, 50-59, with no restriction on other defensive positions.

Can the new horse-collar-tackle rule be reviewed by the upstairs official or by a coach, if it is mistakenly applied? The Bears' Lance Briggs just had this happen to him where in full speed it appeared he had used this illegal tackle but in slow motion he was actually reaching over the shoulder of the opposing player? --James Dunworth, Plainfield, Ill.

Under the replay system, fouls cannot be reviewed, including the "horse collar," with a few exceptions. Replay can look at illegal forward pass from beyond the line of scrimmage; 12 men on the field by either team; illegal touching of the forward pass by an eligible or ineligible player; and legal or illegal touching of a kick. No personal fouls (15-yard penalties) can be reviewed.

Jerry, while reading about the passing of former Michigan coach Bo Schembechler, I learned that you were officiating a game when Ohio State coach Woody Hayes had one of his more infamous blow-ups. Since you were a Big Ten official, I would be interested in hearing your reflections on these two college coaching giants and how they made the game better. Thanks. --Stephen, Michigan City, Ind.

Bo Schembechler and Woody Hayes were bigger than Life. When I worked their games, it was something special. I was fortunate enough to referee four Ohio State-Michigan games and had a lot of contact with both famous coaches. I cherish those days as a collegiate official, and when I heard of coach Schembchler's passing, I felt as if a very dear friend had departed.

I have a lot of Bo stories, but I'll give you one: In 1968, I was the referee on the Kent State vs. Miami of Ohio game, played at Kent State. It was a very tough game and coach Schembechler, then coaching Miami, was very unhappy with the officiating. When the game ended, he raced out onto the field and confronted me:

"What did you say your name was?"

"Jerry Markbreit," I answered.

"You are the worst referee I have ever seen on a college football game, and I promise you, you will never work for me again."

The following year, coach Schembechler became the head coach at the University of Michigan. Their opening game of the 1969 season was California at Michigan. The coach led his team out on the field and spotted me at the 50-yard line. He walked over and said, "Don't I know you?"

"Yes," I said. "My name is Jerry Markbreit, and I'm the guy you said would never work for you again!"

The coach smiled and said, "I guess I didn't have any influence."

Bo Schembechler was a great coach, a great administrator and a great guy.

My friend and I have a bet on this question: Can anyone on the offensive side of the ball begin to block down field on a screen pass, even if the screen pass is thrown behind the line of scrimmage. If they start blocking before the ball is caught, is it pass interference on the offense? --Bill, Corvallis, Mont.

The answer to your question is no. Ineligible offensive players may not go beyond the line of scrimmage until the ball leaves the passer's hand and they may not block a defender beyond the line of scrimmage until the ball is legally touched by an eligible offensive player or by a defender. This rule is in effect, whether a pass is caught behind the line or beyond the line. If eligible offensive receivers are blocking downfield, it is offensive pass interference, whether the pass is thrown before the block or after the block. This offensive interference would be a delayed call if the blocking occurred before the pass was actually thrown.

Here's a follow up to Chuck's questions last week concerning field goal returns. According to your explanation, the ball has to be caught in order to be returned. What happens if Devin Hester muffs the catch in the end zone? --Ed Jackson, Chicago

I may not have made myself clear regarding the field goal return rule. If a receiver attempts to catch a missed field goal in the end zone and the ball hits the ground, it is in play. The receiver may advance or merely down the ball, in which case it would be returned to the spot of the kick, where the defense would take over. If the muffed kick in the end zone were recovered by a kicking team man, it would be a touchdown for the kicking team.

What exactly determines whether a fumble occurred before being down by contact? In the Bears-Jets game, defenders had just started to pry out the ball out of Thomas Jones' arm as his knee hit down. A fumble was ruled, but overturned on replay. The announcers disagreed, stating there wasn't overwhelming evidence. Aside from that point, if the defender moves your arm and ball a couple inches, then your knee hits, and then the "strip" is completed, what should the ruling be? The announcers made a big deal about the "ball moving", but during the first few inches, it's not "loose" yet. What exactly is the rule? --Bob Pleva, Spring Grove, Ill.

If the officials rule that a runner's knee or any part of his body other than a hand or foot touches the ground before the ball comes out, the runner is ruled down by contact. If the ball is moving in the runner's hand or hands before the knee hits the ground, it is a fumble. The announcers are not officials. The officials on the field are experienced and well versed in handling situations such as these.

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MessageSujet: Re: L'échiquier vert (©Oleo) - Questions sur les règles du jeu   Jeu 30 Nov - 15:03

Citation :
Ask Jerry Markbreit
The former NFL referee answers reader questions each week during the season

November 28, 2006, 5:11 PM CST

During a replay delay, Patriot's color commentator, Hall of Famer Gino Cappelletti, was voicing his displeasure over the plane of the goal line being the barrier that must be broken to determine when a player has scored a touchdown. He went on to say that, when he was playing, a player actually had to "touch down" in the end zone to be credited with six points. As you probably are aware, Cappelletti was the AFL's all-time leading scorer--including 42 touchdowns. Has the plane of the goal line always been used to determine when a touchdown has been scored? Or was there once a time in professional football when the player scoring a touchdown had to possess the ball, and actually be in the end zone? If so, when did the rule change? If not, do you think there is more emphasis on the language of the rule due to the implementation of instant replay? --Jeff Blount, Stoneham, Mass.

College football began officially in 1869, with the Rutgers-Princeton game. The NFL began in 1920, and at that time, they used the collegiate rulebook. The professional rules then slowly evolved from the college rules.

I have researched the professional rules back as far as 1949 and can find no definition of a touchdown that requires the ball to be physically touched to the ground in player possession in the opponents' end zone. I believe that Hall of Famer, Gino Cappelletti, was exaggerating when he made his statement. The plane of the goal line has been the touchdown criterion all the way back to the late 1940s, but, there is a strong possibility that somewhere in the distant past, the ball had to be touched down in the end zone to score a touchdown. Obviously, the word "touchdown" came from some directive in the rules. I am sorry that I cannot give you a more definitive answer, as I have only been around football for 50 years.

If a receiver catches a ball near the sideline and is pushed out by a defensive back before getting both feet in, an official may rule it a catch. Would the same rules apply for a defender attempting an interception if pushed out by an offensive player? --Mike B., Chicago

"A pass is completed or intercepted if a player in bounds would have landed in bounds with both feet but is carried or pushed out of bounds while in possession of the ball in the air. The player must maintain possession of the ball when he lands out of bounds." This quote is directly from the NFL rule book. The answer to your question is, yes, a defender attempting to intercept a pass gets the same consideration that an offensive player would get.

Are you the same Jerry Markbreit from the Miller Lite "Man Law" commercials? If so I admire you for having the sense of humor and humility to do them, I think those commercials are great. --Stacey Homeret, San Diego

Yes, I am the same Jerry Markbreit. And, although, I have not seen the commercial, I am glad to hear that it is running. The filming was done in late July. I am glad that you enjoyed it. I have always prided myself on having a good sense of humor in all of my endeavors.

In the Giants-Titans game, Mathias Kiwanuka grabbed Titans quarterback Vince Young. He held onto him and pushed him backwards, stopping his forward progress. Why didn't the official blow the play dead with the QB "in the grasp"? If Kiwanuka brought Young down, it would have been roughing the passer. --Peter K., Marietta, Ga.

In order to have an "in the grasp" play, the quarterback must be in the grasp of the defender with another defender bearing down on the quarterback. The referee has the right, under the rules, to whistle the play dead in order to protect the quarterback from the second hit. Vince Young was in the grasp of a player with no one else on the defensive team bearing down on him. In this case, the referee correctly ruled that the play should continue. If Kiwanuka had followed through and merely tackled the quarterback, it would not have been roughing the passer.

Jerry, can you explain what happened in the San Diego-Oakland game? The Chargers' Vincent Jackson caught a 13-yard pass from Philip Rivers, rolled to the ground untouched, then stood up and spun the ball forward. Oakland's Fabian Washington jumped on the ball, believing it was a fumble, and setting off 10 minutes of confusion as the referees sorted it out. The ruling was illegal forward pass and the Chargers were flagged but kept possession. Shouldn't there been a loss of down, too? --Patrick Flynn, Hadley, Mass.

The NFL rule states that a forward pass thrown from beyond the line by an offensive player is a five-yard penalty and a loss of down. However, in this case, even with the five-yard penalty from the spot of the foul, San Diego was still beyond the line to gain. Consequently, it was first down for San Diego because a new series had been established. You can't have the loss of down on a play if a first down is made. If it had been fourth down for San Diego and after the five-yard penalty they had not made the line to gain, the ball would have been awarded to Oakland.

Regarding the Oakland-San Diego play, is it possible for there to be two infractions on the same play, i.e. not only was there a second forward pass, but the second forward pass was thrown when the passer was past the line of scrimmage? If so, the second infraction would include a loss of down, and Oakland would take over on downs. --Tim Shannon, El Macero, Calif.

It is possible for there to be multiple infractions on the same Play, but, in this case, the only foul was an illegal forward pass from beyond the line of scrimmage. The penalty is five yards from the spot of the pass and a loss of down. The rule concerning a second forward pass by the offense during a play is only in effect when a second forward pass is thrown from behind the line of scrimmage. Because the line to gain was made by San Diego after the five-yard penalty was administered, the loss of down portion of the enforcement disappeared and San Diego had a first down.

The forward pass ruling in the Raiders-Chargers game has sparked the following debate among my friends: If a QB throws a forward pass after he has crossed the line of scrimmage - an illegal forward pass - and it is intercepted, does the interception stand? --Bob Nasser, Falls Church, Va.

The NFL rules state that, "when any illegal pass is caught or intercepted, the ball may be advanced and the penalty declined." If the defensive team intercepts, the play continues and they can decline the penalty. If the offensive team catches their illegal forward pass, the play also continues and the defense has the option of taking the result of the play or having the penalty administered from the spot of the pass with the down counting or from the previous line of scrimmage if the illegal pass was thrown from behind the line of scrimmage. In this case, there would not be a loss of down attached to the penalty.

If a quarterback attempts a forward pass from his end zone and the pass is illegally touched by an offensive lineman, why is a safety not called? This seems to a form of intentional grounding in that there was no expectation of completing the pass. --Mike Larrabee, Woodbridge, Va.

The penalty for illegal touching of a forward pass by an ineligible offensive player is five yards from the previous line of scrimmage and a replay of the down. The defense may also decline the penalty, which would then result in an incomplete pass and the next down would prevail. Intentional grounding in the end zone would be a safety, but illegal touching is not enough for a grounding call. The quarterback under pressure, who deliberately throws the ball into the back of an ineligible offensive player, would incur an intentional grounding call.

Are there any rules on what an NFL coach can and can not wear? --Paul Begnaud, Beaumont, Texas

The official sponsor of NFL clothing is Reebok. All clothing worn by an NFL coach must be manufactured by Reebok and carry the Reebok logo.

Hi, Jerry, my buddies and I are having an argument about why some stadiums show (or did) show replay of the plays that are being reviewed on the Jumbotron. I say it's like the MLB umps and in their union contract that it's not allowed if it's a close play to save them from the jeers. But I seem to recall a few years ago in the NFL that the stadiums did. Is it up to the individual home teams or doesn't the NFL officials union prohibit it now? Also, I met you in Atlanta during your last year on the field (I believe 1998). I still have a great picture of you that I took that day. --Emory, Delray Beach, Fla.

The San Francisco at Atlanta divisional playoff game was my final NFL assignment. I am glad that we had a chance to meet. Most NFL stadiums have in-house TV cameras independent of the network cameras. The in-house shots are shown often on the Jumbotrons. When a play is challenged for replay by the teams or the replay official, the only pictures that can be shown on the Jumbotron once the referee has announced that a play has been challenged is the network line feed that you are watching on your television set. The in-house shots must stop once the announcement has been made.

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MessageSujet: Re: L'échiquier vert (©Oleo) - Questions sur les règles du jeu   Ven 1 Déc - 14:26

ouais, assez rare cette action pendant San Diego/Oakland.
De quoi passer au révélateur le zèbre en chef. Et dans ce cas là, Carey a visiblement eu tout bon, même si l'esprit de la règle est fortement contestable.

dans un autre genre cette semaine, la "double kick penalty" vu dans arizona state/arizona était à mourir de rire, avec le Kicker d'arizona qui fait fumble, se met à jouer au soccer avec le premier défenseur, magnifique crochet intérieur et dégagement en catastrophe. drunken
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MessageSujet: Re: L'échiquier vert (©Oleo) - Questions sur les règles du jeu   Ven 8 Déc - 15:34

Citation :
Ask Jerry Markbreit
The former NFL referee answers reader questions each week during the season

December 5, 2006, 5:16 PM CST

Hi, Jerry, with the Bears stripping the ball so much, a though occurred to me. If a QB just begins a slide and the ball is stripped before any part of his body hits the turf (other than his feet of course) is this a fumble or is he considered down as soon as he begins his slide? Thanks. --Nelson McElmurry, San Jose, Calif.

The quarterback is considered down as soon as he begins his slide. The forward progress is the spot where the slide begins. Consequently, any stripping of the ball or fumble by the quarterback, once the slide starts, is considered a dead ball. The slide may carry him a number of yards forward, but the ball is always returned to the spot where the slide began. The wing officials make this call. If the quarterback dives head first in order to gain additional yardage, he is fair game and is treated like a runner.

Let's say a team is punting on a fourth-and-long play. The punter takes a vicious hit, and the official calls a running into the kicker penalty. Meanwhile, the punter needs medical attention from the training staff. Since it would remain fourth down, would the punter be able to punt on the next play, or would he have to miss the next play because he received medical attention from the training staff? --Ben, Chicago

First of all, any vicious hit against a punter would be roughing the kicker, carrying a 15-yard penalty from the previous line of scrimmage. Whether a running into the kicker or a roughing the kicker foul is called, the kicker may remain in the game because of a specific rule that states "If a foul committed by an opponent causes an injury, a timeout is not charged to that team, even if it occurs after the two-minute warning, or if the player remains in the game."

What's an illegal low block? The rules make clipping, chop block, illegal block from behind and crackback illegal, and I pretty much understand them. Is there a legal low block? How is it different from an illegal one? --Steve Miley, Boston

Let me state the rule, so that you can understand an illegal and legal low block: Players on either team are prohibited from blocking below the waist during a kickoff, safety kick, punt, field goal attempt and try kick. After a change of possession, neither team may block below the waist. Any low block not included in the above rule is legal.

Does the application of the "tuck rule" preclude intentional grounding? I can see why the tuck rule was applied to Brad Johnson in the Chicago-Minnesota game and also why it was forward pass, but why can't an official call intentional grounding on that play? No Viking was near Brad Johnson. --Bryan Schwerer, Cary, N.C.

Intentional grounding is never called when the quarterback is hit as he is throwing the football. In the case of pass/fumble plays, the quarterback is being hit and the referee rules that his arm is coming forward or the ball is out before the arm comes forward. Intentional grounding will be called when a passer facing an imminent loss of yardage because of pressure from the defense throws a forward pass without a real chance for completion. The contact on the quarterback as he is throwing eliminates the chance of grounding.

What is the rule against "flexing his arms" as was called against Brian Urlacher? --Rich, Monroe, Wis.

Once the quarterback has passed the ball, the charging defensive players are restricted from any act that unduly punishes the quarterback. If the defender flexes his arms by bending them and thrusting them forward while pushing the quarterback unnecessarily to the ground, roughing the passer is called. The defender could tackle the quarterback or, for that matter, just wrap him up without taking him to the ground. There is no need to shove him down after the play.

When are TV timeouts in the NFL and how many are there per quarter? For example, it seems like there cannot be a TV timeout in the first 2 minutes of a game even if there is a change of possession. Are there any other conditions that must be met? Also are 30-second timeouts just another way of saying there are no more commercials left in the half or can teams actually request them? --Graham, Chicago

TV timeouts in the NFL are requested after possession changes or after scores. These commercials are signaled to the Referee by a network onfield technician called the "orange sleeves." Try to spot them during the next NFL telecast. He is generally around the 30-yard line on the press box side of the field. There are five commercials during play in each quarter for a total of 20 per game. These commercials are two minutes in length and are timed by an onfield official. A request for commercial by orange sleeves is generally acknowledged by the referee, who, by the way, is responsible for getting the necessary commercials into the game. The only time that the referee would refuse the request is on a fumble recovery, pass interception or a punt returned inside of the opponents' 40-yard line. You are correct about the 30-second timeouts. All charged timeouts are 30 seconds if television is not involved.

I was reading on NFL.com about the position of players at the snap. No offensive player may charge or move abruptly, after assuming set position, in such manner as to lead defense to believe snap has started. All players of offensive team must be stationary at snap, except one back who may be in motion parallel to scrimmage line or backward (not forward). Does this mean that a back who has assumed a three- or four-point stance, and has remained set for at least a second, may not legally go into motion? --Robbi Robinson, Winfield, Ill.

No, the restriction for offensive teams is as follows: Once the team breaks the huddle, all 11 men must be stationary in their positions for one full second. The linemen must remain in their three- or four-point stance and any movement by them results in a false start. The backs and wide receivers are not restricted from going in motion once they are set. If two or more backs or wide receivers are in motion after originally being set, they must come to a complete stop before the snap or an illegal shift is called. One single back after being set, either in a three- or-four point stance or a standing position, may go in motion, providing he is not moving toward the line ofscrimmage at the snap.

Does a team have to have time outs remaining in order to issue a challenge on a play? --David Rosolko, Hudson, Mass.

Yes, each team is entitled to two challenges per game, providing they have remaining timeouts. An unsuccessful coach's challenge calls for a team to lose a charged timeout. Consequently, a team must have a timeout to lose if their challenge fails. During the last two minutes of either half or in overtime, teams do not need timeouts because the replay official takes control of all challenges.

Jerry, I noticed Sunday in Buffalo and Denver the officials were wearing new pants, was this for warmth? Also can you explain the "giving yourself up rule" at the end of the Tennessee-Indy? With 7 seconds left Tenn's squib kick was fielded by one of the up backs. Could he have downed the ball (taken a knee) to save time or does he needed to be touched before the whistle blows? --Manny Pasquale, Chicago

The black officials' pants with a white stripe are new cold weather gear. These pants are cold and wind resistant and allow the officials to wear other cold weather garments underneath. The officials' shirts for the 2006 season are a new design, as are the black pants.

If a player in possession of the ball voluntarily goes to the ground, making no attempt to advance, he is giving himself up, under the rule. The officials blow the whistle, ending the play. So, yes, the player could have taken a knee, giving himself up to save time.

Do the officials that work the Super Bowl receive a ring, or any other commemorative item? Great column, I make sure to read it every week. --Matt Harm, Cherry Hill, N.J.

I am glad that you enjoy the column. I enjoy it very much because I get questions from all over the country and the world. The officials who work the Super Bowl receive a Super Bowl ring from the NFL. This ring is diamond-studded and has the official's name, position and number, along with the Super Bowl logo and the date of the game. If an official works multiple Super Bowls, he gets a ring for each separate game. I cherish my Super Bowl rings.

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MessageSujet: Re: L'échiquier vert (©Oleo) - Questions sur les règles du jeu   Ven 15 Déc - 14:08

Citation :
Ask Jerry Markbreit
The former NFL referee answers reader questions each week during the season.

My husband and I disagree about the reason that a ball cannot be advanced by the defense if it is recovered during a PAT. Can you help to settle the matter before it turns into a scuffle? Thanks. --Gretchen, Proctor, Minn.

The NCAA rules allow the defense to advance an unsuccessful PAT; and, if they score, the defense is awarded two points. The NFL rules prohibit any advance on a missed PAT. The college rule is an innovation that was added a number of years ago in an attempt to liven up a botched PAT. The NFL feels that it is not necessary to continue play after a PAT. These are simply rules that are different in the college and pro games.

Would you please clarify what the rules are regarding the communication between the offensive coordinator and the quarterback by the way of the offensive coordinator's headset and the radio in the quarterback's helmet? If I understand correctly, communication is allowed until 15 seconds remain on the play clock. If this is correct, how is the communication cut off between the two? What is the penalty if it is discovered communication continues between the offensive coordinator and the quarterback go past the 15-second mark on the play clock? --Adam, Cedar Falls, Iowa

At each NFL game there is a game clock operator, a play clock operator, and a coach-to-quarter back operator. The coach-to-quarterback communication is controlled by the coach-to-quarterback operator via a switch. When a play ends, the operator opens the channel by turning the switch, thus allowing the coach to communicate with the quarterback. You are correct that at 15 seconds the switch is turned off and communication between the coach and quarterback is suspended. The teams have no control and mistakes are never made in this area. Good question.

I have noticed that officials are very lenient when it comes to allowing coaches onto the field to argue a call they believe to be wrong. What is the actual rule regarding where a head coach can come onto the field and how much verbal abuse do officials allow before assessing a penalty? As a student who officiates intramural football at Northwestern, I find your articles very helpful. --Ray Garcia, Evanston, Ill.

I would like you to know that my officiating career began at the University of Illinois, working Intramural football. My hat is off to you. Coaches in the NFL are not allowed onto the field during play or after the play to argue with the officials. If a coach happens to wander out onto the field between downs, he is immediately told to get back to the sideline by the nearest official. The penalty flag would only be thrown if the coach came way out onto the field to dispute a call.

On the sidelines there are two people, one with an 'X' on his chest and one with a 'K' on his chest. What are these guys for? --Adam Longbotham, Albuquerque, N.M.

You are very astute in your observation of the people who assist the officials off the field. The people with an "X" on their vests are the regular ball boys who are constantly getting a ball to the nearest official when the ball goes out of bounds or is overthrown on a pass play. They handle the lion's share of balls being brought in from the sideline during NFL games. The people with the "K" on their vests only handle the special kicking balls, which are called K balls. These balls are only used on kick plays and are inspected by the officials before the game begins. The NFL has a rule that the kicking balls be separated from the regular balls that are used for all plays other than kicks.

Can you call pass interference on a defender if he is turned toward the wide receiver, not looking at the ball, waves his arms, but doesn't touch the wide receiver at all? Say the ball is in the air and hits the defender in the arm because he deflects the pass. Again, he doesn't touch the WR, but isn't looking at the ball either. --Dawn Polomsky, Phoenix, Ariz.

Many years ago, there was a penalty on pass plays for "face guarding." What you describe is face guarding. There is no penalty under current NFL rules for this act, unless there is physical contact. If the ball hits the defender, as you describe, the play would be legal. It is dangerous for a defender to turn his back on the direction that the ball is coming from. If he contacts the intended receiver, it would be pass interference because the defender is not playing the ball. You seldom see what you describe, but it would not be a foul.

A friend and I have a disagreement. In the Nov. 26 Redskins-Panthers game, the Redskins tipped a punt that then hit a Panther player after crossing the line of scrimmage. The ball was picked up by a Redskin player who tried to run but fumbled and was recovered by the Panthers. Why did the referee give the ball to the Redskins and not call it a fumble? Is the play dead as soon as the Redskins picked the ball up? --Mark Nejako, Woodbine, Md.

When a defensive player touches or tips a punt behind the line of scrimmage ,the touching is ignored if the ball continues beyond the line of scrimmage. When the Panther player, a member of the kicking team, touched the kick beyond the line of scrimmage, he committed a violation, which gives the defensive team the right of possession at that illegal touching spot if they choose. When the Redskins fumbled the ball and the Panthers recovered, the Redskins chose the spot of illegal touching by the Panthers and under NFL rules were awarded the ball at the spot of illegal touching. The play is not dead when the Redskins picked up the ball. This is a little-known rule of the game and was ruled correctly.

Can you explain the rule on downing the ball on a punt? Is the ball down where it is first touched or when it comes to rest or physically downed by a player on the kicking team? --Bill Rabeor, Rockford, Ill.

Under NFL rules, no player of the kicking team may touch the scrimmage kick beyond the line of scrimmage before it has been touched by a receiver. This is called, "the spot of first touching." If the ball continues to roll after the touching and comes to rest or is physically downed by a player of the kicking team, the receiving team has a choice of whatever spot gives them the best field position.

Hi Jerry, this is a great column you have. Your words have carried weight on many disagreements over rule interpretation. How officials deal with extreme weather? Players can rest, drink fluids and cool off or warm up on the sidelines, but who takes care of the officiating crew? I can only imagine what it would be like to officiate a game like the Ice Bowl, either the Green Bay or Cincinnati version. --Jeff Verdone, Bartlett, Ill.

Thank you very much. I am so glad that you enjoy the column. It is nice to know that you use my rules interpretations with your friends to settle disputes. The officials in the National Football League have the best cold weather gear available. The most valuable piece of equipment is a skin diver's suit, worn under the uniform, which keeps the body warm in the most extreme weather. Insulated socks and special gloves, along with face masks and hand muffs worn on the belts, are also standard equipment in extreme weather. The officials are on the field for an hour-and-a-half, without any opportunity for warmth in either half. But the constant moving produces body warmth and they all seem to get through it. I have personally worked many games in wind chills that were sub-zero, and I always made it through with no adverse effects. When we worked games in Green Bay, they always had steaming hot beef bouillon for the officials at halftime. You would be surprised how that warmed us up!

Hi Jerry. I had a question from the Bears-Rams MNF game. Late in the first half there was a booth review where they overturned a fumble and said that Grossman's arm was going forward and that it was an incomplete pass. But if you look at the replay, even though his arm was going forward the ball actually landed about 2 yards behind him, which I would think would constitute a lateral. Even though his arm had a passing motion, the ball went backwards, which seems like it would be a fumble. --Mike Schuman, Kenosha, Wis.

The initial direction of a pass determines whether it is a forward or a backward pass. In the Grossman play, the initial direction was forward, but the contact by the defense turned him slightly so that the ball went backwards. Under NFL rules, there is no lateral pass. A pass is either forward or backward, and, if a ball is thrown laterally, it is considered a backward pass, and anyone on either team has the right to recover and advance.

Jerry, in yesterday's Cardinals-Seahawks game, a controversial play occurred when receiver Larry Fitzgerald and linebacker Julian Peterson each grabbed a pass at the same time. When Fitzgerald's knee hit the ground, both players appeared to have possession of the ball. Peterson wrestled the ball away from Fitzgerald about a second later and possession was awarded to the Seahawks. Does the rulebook say that in this situation, a tie goes to the receiver, or is this strictly an official's judgment as to who gets possession? --Dan Agnell, Sumerduck, Va.

I'd like to quote the rule for you regarding "Simultaneous Catch." "If a pass is caught simultaneously by two eligible opposing players who both retain possession, the ball belongs to the passing team. It is not a simultaneous catch if a player gains control first and retains control, regardless of subsequent joined control of an opponent. If the ball is muffed after simultaneous touching by two such players, all the players of the passing team become eligible to catch the loose ball."

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MessageSujet: Re: L'échiquier vert (©Oleo) - Questions sur les règles du jeu   Mar 2 Jan - 11:53

Citation :
Ask Jerry Markbreit
The former NFL referee answers reader questions each week during the season

December 20, 2006, 10:00 AM CST

In a couple of games this year I have noticed the ball carrier going out of bounds and the clock continues to run. What's going on? --Bob, Galesburg, Ill.

Under NFL rules, whenever a runner or a receiver goes out of bounds with the ball in their possession, the clock is stopped. Except for the last two minutes of the first half and the last five minutes of the second half, the clock is immediately started when the ball is placed at the inbounds hash mark by the referee. It may appear that the clock has not been stopped because the ball is brought inbounds and placed down by the officials very quickly. There is no instance in any rules of football where the clock would not be stopped when a runner goes out of bounds.

Late in the Bears-Rams game, an errant pass by quarterback Marc Bulger hit the umpire in the shoulder, popped up in the air, and was nearly caught by a diving defensive back. Was this a near interception, or is a pass that bounces off the umpire a dead ball? --Dominic, Chicago

An inbounds official (one who is not standing out of bounds) is considered in the field of play, and any ball that hits an official without touching the ground continues in play. In the play that you describe, had the ball been caught by the defensive back, it would have been a legal interception and advance.

I have a couple of questions about the special kicking or K balls used in the NFL. Are there differences between the kicking balls and the regular balls, other than the "K" markings on the ball? Are kicking balls used in other levels of the game, such as NCAA or high school? --Jon Luttrell, Bolingbrook, Ill.

There are no differences between the kicking balls and the regular balls, other than the "K" marking. These balls are handled by special ball boys and are kept separated from the regular game balls, even though they are the same. The purpose of the K ball is to make sure that a clean, fresh ball is used for the kicking part of the game. Under NCAA or high school rules, kicking balls are not used; however, each team is allowed to use its own ball when they are on offense.

I remain staggered by the call against Kansas City on the blocked punt against San Diego. Kansas City blocked the punt, but it crossed the line of scrimmage and was touched, but not possessed, by a Chiefs player. San Diego then recovered the ball well short of the first-down line, but was awarded a first down by referee Jeff Triplett. How can a kicking team get a first down when the ball never passed the first down mark and was never in the possession of the receiving team? Is this the first time in NFL history that a team got a first down without a penalty and without the ball ever crossing the first-down line? --Kevin Raines, Denver

The play that you saw in the Kansas City/San Diego game was unusual but handled correctly by referee Jeff Triplett and his crew. Whenever a punted ball is touched behind the line of scrimmage by a defensive player, the touching is ignored once the ball crosses the line of scrimmage. In other words, this play is treated just like a regular punt that goes downfield. When the receivers touched the ball beyond the line of scrimmage, it became a free ball and a new series would result regardless of who recovered the ball. The line to gain disappears and when the kicking team recovered the ball beyond the line of scrimmage after it had been touched by the receivers, it was their ball first down and 10 yards to go. These are plays that make football very interesting.

Can the head coach challenge whether the other team got the play off before the play clock expired? --Greg H., Denver

Timing situations cannot be challenged by the coaches under the current replay system. I know that this is a lot more than you asked, but I thought that I would explain the replay system in some detail. The system covers the following situations only:
  • Play governed by sideline, goal line, end zone and end line, including, scoring plays, including a runner breaking the plane of the goal line; passes complete/incomplete/intercepted at sideline, goal line, end zone and end line; runner-receiver in or out of bounds; recovery of loose ball in or out of bounds.
  • Passing plays, including a pass ruled complete/incomplete/intercepted in the field of play; touching of a forward pass by an ineligible receiver; touching of a forward pass by a defensive player; quarterback (passer) forward pass or fumble; illegal forward pass beyond the line of scrimmage; illegal forward pass after change of possession and forward of backward pass from behind line of scrimmage.
  • Other detectable infractions: runner ruled down by defensive contact; runner ruled down by defensive contact when the recovery of a fumble by an opponent or a teammate occurs during the continuing action of the play.

Non-reviewable plays include but are not limited to: clock Status; penalty administration; recovery of a loose ball in the field of play; field goals and inadvertent whistles.

Please help settle a dispute with family regarding a fourth-down, goal-line play. The defense jumps off sides on fourth down-and-2 inside the five-yard line. Wouldn't it be half the distance and an automatic first down because it's less than five yards to a first down? --Dan Wise, Raleigh, N.C.

Yes, it would be a half the distance penalty but not an automatic first down, unless the penalty yardage put the ball beyond the line to gain. All defensive fouls are automatic first downs for the offense with the following exceptions: offside; encroachment; neutral zone infraction; delay of game; illegal substitution; running into the kicker; incidental face mask; and more than eleven players on the field at the snap.

Last week during the Bears-Buccaneers game the telecast showed the ballboys warming the balls on the sideline using the yellow heater. Is that a rule violation as it was reported so by the TV commentators? --Rod Weal, Melrose Park, Ill.

It is a rules violation to warm the balls on the sideline by using the heaters on cold days. It was reported and the ballboys on the Tampa Bay sideline were told to stay away from the heaters. They did so, and reported that they were merely standing near the heaters to keep warm.

Jerry, while surfing the Web I found a Denver Post story about retired referee Ben Dreith, who gave that all-time great "giving him the business down there" explanation to a personal foul penalty. In the story, former head of NFL officials Art McNally refers to Dreith's changing his "code name" from "Colorado" to "Gentle Ben." What are these code names used for and what was yours? Or is that a secret? --Tim Mullins, Chicago

It is not a secret! My code word for my 22 years as a referee was, "Fletcher Rabbit." Fletcher was one of my beloved cats who always reminded me of a large rabbit. The code word is given to the home public relations director to use if it becomes necessary to phone the officials' room during halftime or after the game. The caller would give the code words to authenticate his identity. The Referee would then speak to him.

If a team commits an illegal forward pass within 2 minutes with no timeouts, is there a 10-second runoff? If not, it seems like it could be abused to open up the middle of the field in the hurry-up offense to stop the clock and just lose 5 yards. --Kevin, King of Prussia, Penn.

There is no ten-second runoff for an illegal forward pass in the last two minutes of the half or the game, unless the pass is way beyond the line of scrimmage and being used to stop the clock. Because of this rule, teams cannot abuse the clock, gaining an unfair advantage.

Thank you for a great column and service to all football fans. Each year we see new improvements to the equipment used in competition. This year seems to be an influx of new helmets and face guards. A few years ago it was eye shields and gloves. I'm sure with the advent of field turf we will see new shoes, spike configurations, materials and/or sizes. How is equipment determined to be "fit" for competition? Is there a governing body(s) that tests equipment, like the USGA does for golf? Does the prospective new equipment go through trials during pre-season games? Are the NCAA and NFL Europe proving grounds for equipment as well as players? --Marty Cocorikis, Frankfort, Ill.

It is my pleasure to share the rules of football with those who love the game as I do. The manufacturers of equipment, new and old, that will be presented for consideration to the National Football League, NCAA or state high school associations must submit the equipment and all pertinent information to a national testing organization set up specifically for this purpose. With the approval of this testing organization, the equipment is then made available to the various football leagues that are interested in using this equipment.

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MessageSujet: Re: L'échiquier vert (©Oleo) - Questions sur les règles du jeu   Mar 2 Jan - 11:53

Citation :
Ask Jerry Markbreit
The former NFL referee answers reader questions each week during the season

December 27, 2006, 2:28 PM CST

When there is a fumble and officials are trying to determine possession, what exactly are they looking for? Does one person have to have sole possession? If offense and defense both have it, does it go to the offense like mutual possession of a pass does? If the official sees that a defensive player seems to have control over it in the first place, but then after everyone jumps in after the ball and an offensive player ends up with it after players are pulled away, who ends up with final possession? Thanks! --Hank Jones, Joliet, Ill.

When a fumble occurs and there is a pileup of players trying to recover the loose ball, the rule of thumb for officials is survival of the fittest! The ball may change hands many times before the officials get to the bottom of the pile. Whoever has last possession in that pile gets the ball. However, if the officials hovering over the pile clearly see a recovery before digging to the bottom of the pile, they can award the ball to the recovering team. Most of the time, however, it is survival of the fittest.

Who makes the final decision on a replay review -- the replay official or the referee? Is the referee allowed to consult other field officials when one of their call is being reviewed? --David Englund, Belvidere, Ill.

The replay process is as follows: If it is a coach's challenge, the referee goes to the coach to find out what he is challenging. He then announces on the microphone what the coach has told him. The replay official is immediately reviewing the play in the replay booth. He decides which shots will be the best to show the referee when he arrives at the replay monitor. The referee then views the different angles presented to him by the replay official. The final decision lies with the referee. During the last two minutes of either half, the replay official initiates the challenge, but the process is the same, with the referee making the final decision.

Jerry, during the Bears-Bucs game, Lovie Smith went for the field goal in overtime on third down. My friends and I were arguing that if there was a bad snap or attempt at a fake field goal on third down, would the kicking team be allowed to kick on fourth down? If not, is there any situation where FG team is on the field for a play in which the team would keep the ball without getting a FG or a first down? --Alen Babakhani, Chicago

A third-down field goal that fails to cross the line of scrimmage can be recovered by the kicking team. The next down would be fourth down for the kicking team. Once a field goal crosses the line of scrimmage, the kicking team loses possession, regardless of the down. However, if the kick that crosses the line is touched by a receiver, the kicking team could recover and the next down would be first down for the kicking team.

Jerry, if a defensive back were to commit pass interference on a downfield pass, but the pass was tipped by a defensive lineman on the way, then there would be no interference call, correct? If I understand this correctly, then can a coach challenge a pass interference penalty in a case where a referee may have missed the tipping of the ball? --Ed, Arlington, Texas

Once a forward pass is touched by any eligible pass receiver, all pass interference rules are off. Eligible pass receivers are all offensive backfield men and any player properly numbered who is positioned on the end of the line of scrimmage. There are five eligible offensive players on every pass play. The quarterback is not eligible when he is in the T-formation position. All defensive players are eligible receivers. Once the ball is tipped by a defender, it is fair game for all players to go after the ball with no threat of interference.

A replay challenge can be made by either the coach or the replay official during the last two minutes of either half in order to see whether or not the pass was tipped. If replay shows that it was tipped and a flag had been thrown for interference, the flag would be picked up and the referee would announce, "There is no foul for defensive pass interference because the ball was touched by a defensive player before the contact was made."

If a player steps out of bounds does he become ineligible to return to the field of play? --Glen Hazen, Cincinnati, Ohio

A player who steps out of bounds during play may return inbounds and do anything common to the game, except touch the football. He cannot recover a fumble; he cannot touch a forward pass or down a kick, unless he has reestablished himself by getting both feet back in the field of play before he touches the ball.

It is my understanding that there are no referees in the Pro-Football Hall of Fame in Canton, Ohio. Please correct me if I am wrong. I think this is a MAJOR injustice. Referees have had a major positive impact on the level of competition that we enjoy today. My nominees would be such fine officials as Norm Schacter, Pat Hagarty, Jim Tunny, Johnny Grier, and, of course, Jerry Markbreit. Do you think that referees should be in the Hall? --Steve Steckel, Las Vegas

You are correct. There are no officials in the Pro Football Hall of Fame in Canton, Ohio. I would be very pleased to be inducted into that esteemed fraternity with such great officials as the ones you've mentioned. I would also add Tom Kelleher, Jerry Bergman, Fritz Graf, Jack Fette, Ed Marion, Stan Javie, and a few dozen more of the greatest officials who ever worked in the National Football League. Thank you very much for your question, as it is very close to my heart. The NFL officials are the only professional sports officials who are not in their respective sports Hall of Fame.

What are the current steps it takes for a football to become approved for game play? Does it get special markings? Do the respective quarterbacks get a say now in 2006? And do they get their own football each time they take over the offense? --John, Brooklyn, N.Y.

The current footballs used in the NFL are manufactured by Wilson and Company. Under current rules, each team gets to use their own balls when they are on offense. There is also a special kicking ball, which is brought out onto the field during all kicks. Each team has their own kicking balls, as well.

What are the rules for retractable roof stadiums? Can a team leave the roof open to try to slow down a visiting opponent's offense if the weather is forecasted to be bad? --Paul Smith, Aquadilla, Puerto Rico

An hour and 30 minutes before each game played in a stadium with a retractable roof, the home team announces whether or not the roof will be open or closed. A team could leave the roof open during inclement weather in order to slow down an opponent. However, there is a special ruling that allows the game referee to order the roof closed under extreme weather conditions. Once the roof is closed, either before the game or during the game, it cannot be opened.

Please help me understand the ball spotting rules for defensive pass interference in today's rules. I played the game and I'm confused, even more so, when listening to arm-chair quarterbacks (that never played the game) attempt to explain. Please tell me where the ball is spotted, and penalty yardage if any, for each type of pass interference. Adding to the complexity, please include ruling in event of non-catchable versus catchable ball. --Bob, Barrington, Ill.

Thank you so much for the wonderful compliment. I loved my 43 years of football officiating, and it is nice to be remembered. I know that you cannot remember anyone criticizing my calls, but I have to tell you that I missed my share.

Under NFL rules, pass interference by the defense is a spot foul and carries an automatic first down for the passing team. If the interference occurs in the end zone of the opponents, the ball is placed by rule on the one-yard line with first down and goal-to-go. If a penalty flag is thrown for interference and it is then decided by covering officials that the ball was uncatchable, the referee will announce "There is no foul for defensive pass interference; the pass was uncatchable." This determination has to be made on the field with no involvement by replay. If the ball is catchable, then, of course, the interference penalty stands.

Can you extend your arms to push a quarter back out of bounds when he's running with the ball? --George Austin, Bronx, N.Y.

When the quarterback is running with the ball, he can be pushed out of bounds or to the ground by a defender extending his arms. It is only a foul for roughing the passer when the extended arms push a quarterback to the ground after he has thrown a pass.

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MessageSujet: Re: L'échiquier vert (©Oleo) - Questions sur les règles du jeu   Ven 5 Jan - 11:57

Citation :
Ask Jerry Markbreit
The former NFL referee answers reader questions each week during the season

January 3, 2007, 4:02 PM CST

In the fourth quarter of the Independence Bowl, Oklahoma State versus Alabama, the QB threw a backward pass to the left tackle who ran it in for a touchdown. The commentators had an official explain that anyone is eligible to receive a backward pass since it is, in essence, a running play. Is this true in the NFL as well? Can any lineman drop back and take a backward pass from the QB? --Don Soula, Plano, Texas

Under all rules of football, including the NFL, a backward pass can be legally caught and advanced by any member of the offensive team. There are no eligibility rules for backward passes. What you saw in the Independence Bowl was legal because the left tackle was behind the spot where the pass was thrown. So, in answer to your last question, any lineman may drop back and take a backward pass from the quarterback.

I am confused about what illegal procedure is these days. I was always under the impression that once an offensive lineman was in a three-point stance they could not move. Yet, this happens all the time with these offenses that call the play at the line. You will see the lineman lift their heads and turn to talk to other lineman. Can you explain what is legal and not anymore? --Rick, Franklin, Mass.

There are no illegal-procedure fouls under the NFL rules. Television and radio announcers mistakenly identify false starts as illegal-procedure fouls. Consequently, the viewing and listening audiences become confused. Offensive interior linemen are restricted from moving once they have gone into a three-point stance. They are allowed, however, to lift their heads and turn to talk to other linemen, providing this is not an attempt to simulate the start of a play. The foul for moving once in a three-point stance is a false start and the play is shut down immediately.

I'm a Jaguars fan and went to the Jaguars-Chiefs game in K.C. Josh Scobee kicked an extra point in the second quarter, the ball went over the net and I caught it. I see the "K" stamped on one side, but there also is a "wk-17" on there. Does that mean Week 17 of the season? --Gary Spruce, Carthage, Mo.

Congratulations on catching the K ball after the try for point. Most kicks never make it over the net that is set up to save the football from leaving the playing field. The K stamped on the side of the ball indicates, as I have said in previous columns, that the ball can only be used on kick plays. The marking on your ball, "wk-17," indicates that this ball may only be used during the 17 week of the season. The K balls are branded for each week of the season, beginning with wk-1 and ending with wk-17.

Jerry, if the ball carrier is face-masked, the personal foul variety, and fumbles the ball, with the defensive team recovering, who gets the ball? I have never seen this happen, but would assume since the face masked occurred during the play, the possession would go back to the offense, right? --Nick, Chicago

You are correct. The offensive team gets the ball back and also gets the yardage for the penalty. In your play, the 15-yard face mask foul is penalized from the spot of the foul, even though it may be behind the line of scrimmage. In all other cases, fouls are never penalized from behind the offensive line of scrimmage. This unusual situation is called, "hurts the least." This means that the penalty is enforced from the spot that hurts the fouling team the least, instead of the most, which is the general rule in penalty enforcement. The penalty, regardless of where it leaves the ball, will result in an automatic first down for the offensive team. Once the defense fouls on this play, they give up the right to the fumble recovery.

I was at the Colts-Dolphins game last Sunday. After the first quarter, the referee, another official, the orange sleeves guy, and another television-looking-type guy were having what appeared to be an involved discussion. Why types of things could they have been talking about? --Mike Kilgore, Rushville, Ind.

I can tell you exactly what they were talking about because I was at this game. During the first quarter of the game, television took no commercials because the first game of the CBS double-header went into overtime and as long as most of the country stayed with the overtime game, no commercials were taken. The meeting that you describe was held to discuss with television's sideline people to make sure that the network knew how many commercials they could take in the second quarter. Under normal circumstances, five commercials are taken in each quarter. Because nothing was taken in the first quarter, 10 commercials were required for the network to catch up. Under NFL rules, a maximum of eight commercials may be taken in any one quarter. The other commercials have to be made up in the third and fourth quarters, which they were. That is the reason for the meeting.

Within the two-minute warning, if a team has three time outs remaining and a player is injured, do you lose one of your three time outs? Or do you keep the three and a fourth time out is given for the injury? --Colleen Watts, Colorado Springs, Colo.

During the last two minutes of the second or fourth quarter, an injury timeout becomes a charged timeout for that team, unless the injury was caused by a foul. In almost all cases, the injury is not caused by a foul and the team is charged with a timeout. If a team has used all of their timeouts and an injury occurs in this time period, they are charged with an excess timeout, which carries no penalty. A fifth timeout would carry a five-yard delay of game penalty and the clock would start with the ready for play signal by the referee.

Hi, Jerry. Happy New Year. I'm Antonio from Italy and love the column. I have a question about the spot of the ball after defensive holding during a run when there is not a change of possession. How come in Week 13 during the San Francisco-New Orleans game, on first-and-goal at San Fran 4, Deuce McAllister is down at the 3 and the ruling is first-and-goal at SF 2? It should have been at SF 1 1/2. Or in Week 13, during the Arizona-St. Louis game, it's first-and-goal at Rams 6. Edgerrin James is down at the 4 and the ball was placed at the 3. For me the 2 is correct. I hope you can help me clear this up and I'd like to know the exact rule about it. Thank you. --Antonio, Rome, Italy

Happy New Year. I am so glad to hear from you, Antonio, all the way from Rome. I am thrilled that you enjoy the column. The penalty enforcement for a defensive holding foul is five yards from the end of the run, providing that the run goes beyond the line of scrimmage, and an automatic first down for the offended team. If the run ends behind the line of scrimmage, the penalty is five yards from the previous line of scrimmage and an automatic first down. In all of your plays, the enforcement is half the distance to the goal from the end of the run. A run that ended at the three should have been placed at the one-and-a-half yard line and the run that ended at the four should have been placed at the two-yard line. A defensive holding penalty on a pass play, whether completed or not, is always a previous line of scrimmage enforcement and an automatic first down.

If a team takes a timeout and during that timeout they decided to challenge a play and lose it, do they get charged with a second timeout? --Patrick Flynn, Hadley, Mass

Yes, whenever a team calls a timeout to decide whether a play should be challenged or not, they are automatically charged with that timeout. If the play goes to replay and they lose the challenge, they are in fact charged with a second team timeout.

If half of the football goes over an upright on a kick, is it good? Or must the entire football be inside the vertical upright which extends to infinity to be a field goal? And can a team challenge a field goal? --Joe Sarasua, Pacifica, Calif.

During field goal and extra point tries, the entire ball must be inside of the outside vertical upright plane in order to be ruled a successful kick. A team may not challenge whether or not a field goal is good or bad. The replay official is also restricted from challenging this play during the last two minutes of either half.

I have a follow-up question regarding your explanation of replay procedures. Is there ever a time during replay review when the referee might consult with the official who made the call on the field? I've never seen it done. Is such consultation even allowed under replay rules? --David Englund, Belvidere, Ill.

Once the referee goes under the hood of the replay monitor, the decision is his and his alone. He cannot discuss it with anyone, except the replay official up in the replay booth. The discussion with the official who made the call on the field is done prior to announcing the replay to the viewing audience and before going to the monitor.

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MessageSujet: Re: L'échiquier vert (©Oleo) - Questions sur les règles du jeu   Jeu 11 Jan - 10:46

La première question va intéresser tjrs.
Citation :
Ask Jerry Markbreit
The former NFL referee answers reader questions each week during the season

January 9, 2007, 2:21 PM CST

In the Cowboys-Seahawks game, why was the Terry Glenn fumble near the goal line not a touchback? The impetus of the ball going in and out of the end zone came from the Seahawks players. --Jay Chapman, Benicia, Calif.

The impetus that sent the ball in and out of the end zone was attributed to the offensive receiver, Terry Glenn, because he caught the pass and then fumbled the ball when he was hit. The fumbled ball went into the end zone and the result of the play was a safety because the ball went out-of-bounds in Dallas' end zone with the impetus coming from the Dallas player. The definition of impetus is the action of a player that gives momentum to the ball and sends it to the end zone. They attribute impetus to the offensive team whenever there is a fumble. The definition of a fumble is when a player clearly has possession of the ball, as in a legal catch of a forward pass, which is exactly what happened.

What is the purpose of stopping the clock whenever a QB is tackled? It seems unnecessary to me and it lengthens the game. --Dick Williams, Brooklet, Ga.

Whenever the quarterback is sacked behind the line of scrimmage, the clock is stopped until the deep receivers return within five yards of the line of scrimmage. The purpose of this stoppage is to give the receivers ample time to get back into the action after a deep pass rout. In recent years, the rules have changed, and during the last two minutes of either half, the clock is not stopped when the quarterback is sacked behind the line of scrimmage. Receivers are on their own and responsible for getting back into the action during these two-minute situations.

When a punt is kicked out of bounds, the line judge or side judge is seen walking up the sideline with his hand in the air. He appears to be looking at someone. How does he actually know where the ball went out of bounds? --Donald Plant, Woodbridge, Va.

When a punt is kicked out of bounds, the deep sideline officials (side judge and field judge) are responsible for marking the spot where the ball actually crossed the sideline. When the ball bounces in the field and then goes out of bounds, it is easy for these two officials to mark the spot. When the punt goes out of bounds in flight, it is not possible for these officials to accurately mark the spot. They raise their hand as they move up the sideline until they receive a signal from the referee, who has marked the spot from his position up field behind the kicker. The referee has his armed raised, just like the sideline officials and when the referee drops his arm, the sideliners have their spot. It's not very scientific, but it works.

I was wondering why all the football referees don't use wireless headsets to communicate since this technology is available? It seems that it would save time running and huddling for each discussion or flag. This is used successfully in soccer. --Alen Babakhani, Chicago

Football officials need to confer on certain situations in-person and not over a wireless communication system. The reason that soccer uses a system like this is because soccer is a continuous game, with no time between plays for discussion like football has. I know we have a lot of wonderful technology, but in my opinion, the current system works very well.

Hi, Jerry. Can the officials on the field consult with anyone regarding the rules of the game? With the complexity of the rules, I have to think even professionals like you would occasionally run into situations that might require access to the rules. Is there an official on hand to consult with in these circumstances, who can review the rulebook to make sure that the rules are enforced correctly or do you just rely on your best judgement in these circumstances? --Howard Lapin, Fort Wayne, Ind.

When the NFL officials go out on the field for a game, they are prepared to handle any situation that arises. Studying the rules is a year-round job, which includes off-season testing and many rules discussions with other officials. The officials are tested at clinics and each man is expected to be an expert. Each crew, led by the referee, handles whatever happens out on the field. No rulebooks are carried on the field or are in possession of anyone on the sideline. In order to be a successful official in the NFL, one has to be an expert on rules interpretation and have the confidence to know that every situation will be handled correctly. This system has been in place since the first college game was played between Rutgers and Princeton in 1869. Even then, in the first game, the coaches were unhappy with decisions and rules interpretation. At the conclusion of the game, the Princeton coach confronted the referee and stated, "This is the poorest officiating that I have ever seen in a college football game!"

Why are the NFL officials wearing the black pants? When can they be used and how do the officials and retirees feel about the change? --Shawn Wortman, Trenton, Tenn.

The black pants with a white stripe are part of new cold-weather uniforms worn by the officials this year. They are made of a material that is wind and cold resistant, and waterproof. Because they are not skin-tight like the traditional white knickers, additional cold-weather gear can be worn under these long, loosely fitted new officials' pants. As a retiree, I like the new pants and wish I had had them during the many inclement-weather games that I officiated. The officials are all very pleased with the new look.

We all know that in baseball and the NBA the relationship between the players and officials can be quite contentious. However, with the exception of the coaches, the relationship between the NFL players and officials seems to be pretty cordial. Is this actually the case? If so, why do you think this is so? --Jason Samuel, Huntington Beach, Calif.

You are absolutely correct in your assessment of the relationship between NFL players and officials: An atmosphere of mutual respect exists during NFL games and because of this, there is no conflict between officials and players. The philosophy in the NFL has always been to treat players and coaches the way you would like to be treated. This not only works in football, but it works in life. I always enjoyed hearing positive comments from players and coaches when our crew walked out onto the field.

Is there any possible scenario where a player receiving a kickoff can throw a forward pass during the return? --Dean Garrett, Chesapeake, Va.

Whenever possession changes during a down, the team gaining possession is restricted from throwing a forward pass. When a kickoff return is in progress, the runner may throw a backward pass, but if the ball goes forward, it is a foul for an illegal forward pass. If the ball hits the ground, it is an incomplete illegal forward pass and carries a five-yard penalty from the spot of the pass. If the illegal pass is caught by a member of the passing team, the ball continues in play with the penalty to be enforced from the spot of the pass if the kicking team so desires. If the illegal pass receiver is hit and fumbles and the kicking team recovers, they would decline the penalty and take the result of the play. In a simple answer to your question: No, a forward pass cannot be thrown on a kickoff return.

Can the defense decline an intentional grounding penalty by the opposing offensive quarterback? Or is it always an immediate loss of down, and spot foul or 10-yard penalty? --Darin Myers, Royse City, Texas

All penalties, under NFL rules, can be declined, with the exception of the first kickoff that goes out of bounds. The out of bounds kick has to be replayed from the kicking line with a five-yard penalty. Intentional grounding can be declined; however, it would be foolish to do so because in either case, the down would count and taking the penalty would include a 10-yard walk-off or the ball being snapped from the spot of the foul, whichever spot hurts the offense the most.

My question is in regards to the huge Jumbotrons. Is there a rule or regulation regarding whether officials can look at this screen anytime during the game? I would think that watching the replays on the screen could have an influence on the calls. Thank you! --Rob S., Matteson, Ill.

Officials are restricted from looking at the Jumbotron during the game. They make their calls on the field, using their own good judgement. If either the coach or the replay official question these decisions, the replay system takes over.

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MessageSujet: Re: L'échiquier vert (©Oleo) - Questions sur les règles du jeu   Mar 23 Jan - 13:45

Citation :
Jerry Markbreit's answers
The former NFL referee answers reader questions each week during the season

January 16, 2007, 7:32 PM CST

Regarding the "football move" question after a catch, say a receiver catches the ball while both feet are off the ground and is wrapped up by a would-be tackler. He therefore cannot make any "football moves" as his feet are off the ground. While preparing to plant the receiver in the ground the ball is ripped loose. Fumble or catch? --John, Poughkeepsie, N.Y.

I assume that this player is in the middle of the field, and not on the sideline. The ruling is incomplete pass because the receiver must come down inbounds with both feet in order to complete a catch. If your play was on the sideline, you could have a forceout, providing that the receiver holds the ball after hitting the ground. The definition of a forceout is when a receiver would have come down inbounds with both feet, but is driven out of bounds by a defender, preventing his feet from coming down inbounds.

I believe the Dallas-Seattle wild card came to a conclusion with Seattle punting to Dallas. The punt went out of bounds at the 50-yard line with 2 seconds remaining on the clock and the Dallas receiver waiving for a fair catch. Did Dallas have the choice to attempt an uncontested free kick to win the game? I think a 60 yard kick is more likely to succeed than a Hail Mary. --Edward Rytych, Downers Grove, Ill.

In order to have the option of a free kick after a fair catch, the signaler must catch the ball inbounds. In your play, the punt went out of bounds, thus, eliminating any option other than putting the ball in play with a scrimmage down, as they did. I am sure that if Dallas had the opportunity to try a field goal from 60 yards out, with no rush by the defense, they would have elected to do so. It is not uncommmon for a kickoff to travel seventy yards in flight.

Once a play is run, a previous play can't be challenged or reviewed. What if there is a penalty such as too many men in the huddle, unabated to the quarterback or delay of game before the offense can actually run a play? Would that prevent the defense from challenging? Or the offense if it were a play they might want to challenge? --Hank Jones, Joliet, Ill.

You are correct that no challenge is possible once the ball is snapped for the next play. If a penalty for too many men in the huddle is called, there has not been a snap and therefore, the previous play can be challenged. The same goes for unabated to the quarterback and delay of game. Remember, the key words are "the next snap."

While enjoying the divisional playoff games with some friends this weekend we got into a disagreement that I thought you might be able to help out with. How much do NFL officials generally run throughout the course of a game? Which position has to run around the most? --Lynn Paik, Shorewood, Ill.

During the pre-season games for the 2005 season, pedometers were put on officials in a number of games to determine the distance run during a normal NFL game. The referee or crew chief averaged better than five miles per game. The sideline officials average close to five miles per game, and the back judge, who is deep in the middle of the field, averaged better than six miles per game. The umpire, who is behind the defensive line, covered the shortest distance, averaging about two miles per game. Overall, the officials do a lot of running and must be in top-notch condition at all times.

Jerry, In the Seahawks-Bears game, Rex Grossman was hit from the front while holding the ball over his head. He lost the ball, but it was ruled an incomplete pass because his arm went forward when he was hit. It appeared to me that the only reason his arm went forward was due to the impact from the defensive player. Can a quarterback be ruled to have thrown a pass solely because his someone else forced his arm forward? --Brian D., Cleveland

The determination of pass versus fumble has nothing to do with the hit being made on the quarterback. Regardless of why the arm comes forward with the ball in control, the play is ruled a forward pass. If the arm comes forward with the ball not in control, even if the ball goes forward, the play will be ruled a fumble. The referee is focused on the arm of the quarterback, and it is his decision whether it is a pass or fumble. The Rex Grossman play was a perfect example of what I have described: His arm did come forward with the ball solidly in possession and the play was correctly ruled an incomplete forward pass.

In the Cowboys-Seahawks playoff game, Terry Glenn fumbled into the end zone. A Seahawks player then grabbed the ball and appeared to throw it back into the field of play for his teammates to recover. He happened to be out of bounds, but what would have been the call if he wasn't? You can't intentionally throw the ball back into play can you? --Brian, Chicago

Several things could have happened on this play. If the Seahawk player had been inbounds, it could have been considered an illegal bat. It is illegal to bat a loose ball in any direction in either end zone. If the player had been inbounds and in control of the ball, his action could have been considered a forward pass, which would have been illegal because a change of possession had occurred. Either one of these actions, if flagged, could have resulted in a safety. Fouls in their own end zone would have been enforced from the spot of the foul, resulting in the safety.

According to NFL rules, can the ground cause a fumble? --Larry B. Surles, Davenport, Fla.

When a runner is contacted by a defensive player and he touches the ground with the ball solidly in possession with any part of his body, except his hand or foot, the play shall be declared dead immediately. If upon hitting the ground in this situation, the ball comes loose from the concussion of the ground, the play is over and a fumble is not ruled. In this case, the ground cannot cause a fumble. However, if a runner not contacted by a defender goes to the ground and then fumbles the ball, the play continues. In this case, contact with the ground can legally cause a fumble.

We all saw the botched field-goal attempt in the Dallas-Seattle game. I was wondering , if a holder on a field-goal or extra-point try drops the ball is it legal for the kicker to kick the ball off the ground without the ball being held by the holder. --Russ Colver, Palm Desert, Calif.

No, this would be illegally kicking a football, which carries a 10-yard penalty from the previous line of scrimmage. If this illegal kick sent the ball through the uprights, the score would be disallowed because of the foul. No ball can ever be kicked legally when it is on the ground, unless it is being held for a field goal or a try.

Jerry, what's the purpose of the K balls? Is it to prevent kickers from messing with the game balls too much? --Chris Franklin, Evanston, Ill.

The K balls are kept separate from the regular game balls. After being checked for air content and rubbed down by designated ball handlers, they are put in the possession of the K ball boys. These ball boys have a K on the front and back of their vests and are easily identified. They only handle the K balls. There is another set of boys who handle the game balls. There are many reasons why the K ball is used, but your comment is as good as any.

Could you please go over the rule of breaking the plane? We have regular debates about it and I am not sure of the answers. Does a player or the ball have to cross the plane in bounds for it to be a touchdown? Can a player leap from the 2-yard line have his body and the ball out of bounds but land past the plane and have it be a touchdown? --Brian Gozdan, Warminster, Penn.

The goal-line plane extends beyond the sidelines. In officials' talk, "It extends around the world!" A player in possession of the ball may be out of bounds in the air, holding the ball so that it breaks the plane of the goal line at or inside of the goal line pylon. In other words, your player who leaves the field at the 2-yard line, need only have the ball in his hand pass over or inside of the pylon in order to score. The position of the player, as long as he not landed out of bounds, has no effect on the ruling.

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MessageSujet: Re: L'échiquier vert (©Oleo) - Questions sur les règles du jeu   Mer 24 Jan - 9:13

Citation :
Ask Jerry Markbreit
The former NFL referee answers reader questions each week during the season

January 23, 2007, 4:45 PM CST

Several times this year (including in the Indy-New England game) I have seen fumbles near the goal line that the defensive team almost recovered, only to have the ball squirt free and be recovered by the offense in the end zone for a touchdown. Is there a rule regarding a defensive player intentionally batting the ball to the back of the end zone in hopes of a touchback? Unless specifically prohibited, it would seem this would be the better strategy -- both for probability of success and for field position. --Dave, Little Rock, Ark.

If a defensive player bats a ball from the field of play into his own end zone, it is not a foul. However, if he recovers the ball in his end zone or the ball goes out of the end zone as the result of the bat, it is a safety. The impetus that put the ball into the end zone came from the defensive player legally batting the ball. Because of this, it is not, in my opinion, good strategy for a defensive player to do this. You can always legally bat a ball towards your own goal line.

It appeared that near the goal line when New England fumbled the ball, a New England player inadvertently kicked the football into the end zone before it was recovered for a touchdown. Isn't it against the rules to kick the ball, even inadvertently? --Nathan Schank, Fortville, Ind.

It is against the rules to intentionally kick a ball that is on the ground in any direction from the field or the end zone, unless it is a drop kick or a place kick. Unintentional kicking of the grounded ball creates new force or impetus, but it is not a foul.

During the Colts/Pats AFC Championship game, defensive pass interference was called on Pats back Ellis Hobbs in the endzone while guarding Reggie Wayne. Was it because Hobbs bumped Wayne or was it because Hobbs never looked for the ball, jumped, and blocked the pass with his back? --Stephen Griffith, Bloomington, Ind.

A defensive player who makes no contact with an intended receiver, even though he is not looking at the ball, commits no foul, even if the ball hits the defender before it can be caught by the offensive player. If the defender contacts the offensive receiver without looking at the football, it is defensive pass interference. In the play that you describe, the interference must have been caused by the defender bumping into the intended receiver, without looking at the football.

In the in the AFC title game, the officials awarded a score to Jabar Gaffney after ruling he was forced out of the back of the end zone by an Indy defender. That call was, at least to me, quite clear. The game announcers made a big deal of where Gaffney's feet were before the jump. On one angle, it did look as if his heels were in the white paint. So, when Indy challenged, were they required to state a reason "didn't maintain possession" or "receiver stepped out of bounds before catch" or does the replay official review every aspect of the play without guidance? And should the officials mentioned in/out of bounds as well as maintaining possession? --John S., Hinsdale, Ill.

When Indianapolis challenged the force out play, the only thing that they had to tell the referee was that they were challenging the ruling on the field of a completed pass. The replay official, while reviewing the play with the referee, will review all aspects of the play. In order for this play to be overturned to an incomplete pass, the receiver had to be out of bounds before he made the catch. The question was raised as to whether the receiver pushed off of the end line while going up for the ball. It was determined that the receiver did not touch the end line. The second item reviewed was whether the ball was solidly in possession of the receiver when he hit the ground after being forced out by the defender. The receiver was in full possession when he hit the ground and the play was correctly ruled a touchdown.

There seems to be an official on the sidelines in regular dress clothes and a headset. Is he an NFL official over the game or part of your crew as a backup? --James Davies, Frankfort, Ind.

During playoff games, the alternate officials are on the sideline, wearing blue jackets and head sets. They are in communication with the observer in the press box. They relay information at the request of the observer. If an official is injured during play, one of the alternate officials fills his position for the remainder of the game. Anyone seen on the sideline in regular civilian clothes with a head set who is not a coach is either "the Orange Sleeves," who is in constant communication with the television truck and who is responsible for requesting television timeouts, or "the Green Hat," who times the commercials and communicates with the onfield officials during television timeouts.

During both the AFC and NFC championship games this weekend, TV commentators said the officials "let the players play" by not flagging some contact that would have been called holding or pass interference during the regular season. Is this the case or is it just that the best officials were assigned and that's the way they always call their games? --David Englund, Belvidere, Ill.

Playoff games are officiated exactly the same way as regular season games. The reason that there are generally less fouls during the playoffs is because you have the best teams and they commit the fewest fouls. The players understand how costly fouls can be, especially when they are playing in a year-end elimination tournament. All of the NFL officials are excellent at their jobs; but you are correct, the best officials are assigned the playoffs. The ranking of the officials is determined by their percentage of accuracy throughout the season and general field presence.

It seems that the holding penalty and what is or is not called is evolving. What is the actual rule for offensive holding? --Perry, San Diego

There are many pages in the NFL rule book describing all aspects of offensive holding. However, I am going to quote the most important paragraph that should explain what offensive holding actually is:

"Using hands or arms to materially restrict an opponent or altering the defender's path or angle of pursuit. Material restrictions include but are not limited to: (1) grabbing or tackling an opponent; (2) hooking, jerking, twisting or turning an opponent; and, (3) pulling him to the ground."

There is one added ingredient: The hold must occur at the point of attack, which is the spot on the field where the runner would be tackled if it were not for the offensive hold.

What is the rule when one team calls a time out and then try's to call a second time out? Is there a penalty? Can a team do that? --Rod Weal, Melrose Park, Ill.

Consecutive time outs called by the same team are not permitted under NFL rules. If this occurs, the officials do not allow the time out and no penalty is assessed. If the second time out is inadvertently allowed, the clock is immediately restarted with no penalty. The only situation that carries a penalty for a second consecutive time out is when a team is attempting a field goal and the opponents, after calling a time out to "freeze the kicker," then ask for a second time out. This is an unsportsmanlike conduct foul and the defense is penalized 15 yards from the line of scrimmage.

If a quarterback is within the tackles on, say, the opponents' 10 yard line and is about to get sacked but throws it through the back of the end zone into the stands, is it still intentional grounding? Note that there are no receivers in the area. --Steve Pettey, Arlington, Va.

Intentional grounding will be called when a passer, facing an imminent loss of yardage because of pressure from the defense, throws a forward pass without a realistic chance of completion, unless he is outside of the tackle position. Most grounding fouls occur when the quarterback throws the ball toward the sideline with no receiver in the area. If he throws the ball out of the end zone and into the stands with no receiver in the area, it is also intentional grounding.

During the 88-yard pass play for the Saints, a Bear player was picked. The announcers said because there was not contact, it was legal. While it wasn't much, there appeared to be slight contact. I was under the assumption that picks were illegal and subject to penalty. Can you please clarify the rule, and why this particular pick was not penalized? --Rob, Matteson, Ill.

A "pick play" is offensive pass interference. Actions that constitute offensive pass interference include blocking downfield by an offensive player prior to the ball being touched; initiating contact with a defender by shoving or pushing off, thus creating separation in an attempt to catch a pass; and driving through a defender who has established a position on the field. There must be contact in order to have this foul. Any slight contact having no effect on the play is not considered a foul.

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MessageSujet: Re: L'échiquier vert (©Oleo) - Questions sur les règles du jeu   Ven 2 Fév - 11:31

Citation :
Ask Jerry Markbreit
The former NFL referee answers reader questions each week on ChicagoSports.com

February 1, 2007, 11:45 AM CST

What do you and other officials think about the long Super Bowl halftime? It seems to be at least twice as long as a regular-season game. I would think this would be hard on the players, and officials, having this much time between halves. --Rob, Matteson, Ill.

The Super Bowl is not only a championship football game, but it is a national event from start to finish. The half time entertainment is an important part of the whole package and it cannot be done in the usual 12-minute halftime. The coaches and players are aware of the added time at halftime and they adjust. Sure, they cool down, but are given a few minutes of additional time to warm up once they come out on the field.

Jerry, if a playoff game goes into overtime and isn't decided within 15 minutes, what happens? How about after 30? --Mark Early, Arlington, Va.

Playoff games have a different overtime procedure. At the toss of the coin in overtime, the players are told that the first quarter of a new game is beginning. If no one scores during the first period, the second quarter begins, just like it would in an ordinary game with a two-minute warning and all other rules pertaining to the last two minutes of the second quarter. If no one scores in the first two periods, a three-minute halftime precedes the beginning of the third quarter, and so on. All of this, of course, is dependent on the first team to score because all overtime rules, whether in regular season or in post-season, are sudden death.

Reading your previous column, you mention that a pick play requires contact to be considered a foul. If the defensive player runs through the pick of a receiver not being thrown the ball. He does this to continue pass coverage and knocks down the picking receiver, who gets flagged? Does it make a difference if the pass is in the air or not? Does this mean that defenders should not run around picks, but instead run through them? --Nader, Chicago

Both offensive and defensive players have a right to their position on the field. If the defender runs through the offensive player in an attempt to get to another position, it is legal, providing the ball is not thrown in that direction. However, if the ball is in the air and in the vicinity of the receiver, defensive pass interference would be ruled. I would not suggest it good procedure for defensive players to run through a possible pick situation. Remember, the offensive man cannot block the defender prior to any pass being thrown. In almost all cases, the defenders are going for the ball and not the offensive receiver.

Last week you explained the rules for offensive holding. Could you please explain the rules for defensive holding? Must the defensive hold occur at the point of attack, like in offensive holding? Also, how does defensive holding differ from pass interference when the holding is downfield? --Kelly, Chicago

Defensive holding prohibits a player from tackling or holding any opponent other than a runner. Otherwise, he may use his hands, arms or body only to defend or protect himself from any obstructing opponent in an attempt to reach a runner. On punt, field goal attempt or try kick attempt a defensive player may not grab and pull an offensive player out of the way, which allows another defensive player to shoot the gap in an attempt to block the kick. A defensive player commits a foul when he grabs a potential offensive blocker who is trying to open a lane for the runner. Defensive holding by defensive linemen and linebackers always involve the point of attack. Defensive backs who grab intended receivers beyond the line of scrimmage commmit defensive holding, providing the ball is not in the air; and then, it is defensive pass interference. It is never pass interference when the holding is by a defensive lineman or linebacker.

If a team elects to punt after a safety, what are the cosequences if the kick goes out of bounds? --Ike, Manalapan, N.J.

A free kick is one that puts the ball in play to start a free kick down. This includes a kickoff and a safety kick. All free kicks, other than a safety kick must be place kicks. During these free kicks, a one-inch tee may be used. A safety kick can either be a place kick or a punt. They are always punts, but the team has an option. All free kick rules are the same for kickoffs and safety kicks. If a safety kick goes out of bounds, untouched by a receiver, the ball is awarded to the receiving team 30 yards in advance of the spot of the safety kick. A safety kicker can even try an onside kick with a legal recovery if the ball has traveled the necessary 10 yards. This is seldom seen, but I have seen it.

Jerry, I was wondering why the "fumblerooski" is an illegal play according to NFL rules. I found a copy of the NFL rulebook online, but can't seem to find anything within it that would make this play illegal. Can you explain why this play was made illegal, and what part of the rulebook covers this? Thanks! --Brian Green, Downers Grove, Ill.

As far as I am concerned, the "fumblerooski" play is legal, as long as the quarterback puts the ball down on the ground behind him. Any player on the offensive team, including linemen, can pick the ball up and advance. The only thing that would make this play illegal under NFL rules if if the quarterback puts the ball down in front of himself, thus creating an intentional fumble forward, which would then be ruled an incomplete forward pass. I know that this sounds strange, but that's the rule.

If a ruling is reversed after replay, is the official who made the call automatically downgraded in the peformance review of that call? Does he get a chance to explain himself (partially screened, speed of the play, etc.)? Also, when officials are evaluated on their calls, what criteria are used? For example, what distinguishes a great call from an average one? --David Englund, Belvidere, Ill.

Dear David: Congratulations on being such a frequent contributor to this column! You must truly be a great football fan. If a play is reversed and it is an obvious error on the part of the official, a downgrade will be given. Most replay situations are very tight and, in these cases, the officials are not downgraded. Consideration is also given if it is apparent that an official was screened out on the play.

The officials are graded on their accuracy and field presence. The criterion used is correct or incorrect, with special consideration for very difficult calls. You know as well as I when a great call is made by an NFL official. These are the best officials in the land, working in the toughest league.

Is there a special rule for spiking the ball to stop the clock? It seems it should be intentional grounding since it occurs between the tackles and no attempt is made to pass to a receiver? Can a quarterback drop back a few steps and still spike the ball or does it he have to spike it immediately? --Bill Deppert, Noblesville, Ind.

Spiking the ball to stop the clock is called, "clocking the ball." In order to avoid intentional grounding on this play, the quarterback has to throw the ball immediately to the ground in front of him as soon as he receives the snap from center. If he drops back a yard or two and then throws the ball into the ground, intentional grounding will be called.

Is a defensive player allowed to intentionally touch a receiver after the receiver has gone five yards down field and before the ball is thrown? -- Lenny Barthle, Valrico, Fla.

Defensive players are restricted from any contact with offensive receivers, once the receiver has gone more than five yards downfield, providing that the quarterback is in the pocket. This foul is illegal contact and carries a five-yard penalty and an automatic first down for the receiving team. If this contact occurs and the ball has been thrown, the contact might result in defensive pass interference, providing the contact is severe enough to affect the play.
Rien compris à ses histoires de pick play... scratch

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MessageSujet: Re: L'échiquier vert (©Oleo) - Questions sur les règles du jeu   Jeu 8 Fév - 13:23

Citation :
Ask Jerry Markbreit
The former NFL referee answers reader questions for the final time this season.

February 7, 2007, 12:18 PM CST

This will be my final column for the 2006 football season. I want to thank you all for your wonderful questions, and for the interest you took in the feature. I couldn't wait for each week's questions, and I got much pleasure in giving you the answers. Have a wonderful off-season and I'll see you all next September.

What to NFL refs use the wrist lanyards for? It doesn't seem that most have whistles attached, so I was curious why they seem to be so prevalent. --Ben, Annandale, Va.

The purpose of the wrist lanyards is to keep track of the down. This lanyard is made up of a wrist band and an additional band that is wrapped around the fingers to indicate whether it's first, second, third or fourth down. The umpire, who is positioned directly behind the defensive line, also keeps track of the spot where the ball was snapped on the previous down by using the same type of wrist lanyard. The umpire will generally have lanyards on both hands.

This may seem like I'm splitting hairs (or blades of grass), but the Kelvin Hayden interception and return of a Grossman pass in the Super Bowl begs this question: If your foot lands on terra firma entirely inbounds, but your foot touches some blades of grass that are painted white (out of bounds) while you are lifting your feet, are you out of bounds? --DC, Barrington, Ill.

When a play is challenged through the replay system, there has to be indisputable visual evidence in order to reverse the call on the field. The Hayden interception was reviewed and, even if a blade or two of grass were involved, the play would have not been changed. I know football is a game of inches, but splitting hairs (or blades of grass) will not affect a close call on the field.

If I remember correctly, all offensive players must be set before the ball can be legally snapped. Peyton Manning appears to take liberties with this, especially when in the shotgun. He jumps around, and is actually taking a step forward when the ball is snapped. What is the rule? How do you feel about his motions versus the rule? --Brian Hendrickson, Lapeer, Mich.

Peyton Manning almost never starts his pre-snap movements until all of his players are stationary. He is very good at not moving forward when the ball is snapped. It may appear that he is moving, but his movements are legal. One man may be moving at the snap, providing he is not moving toward the line of scrimmage. A lot of quarterbacks step into the snap at the same time that the ball is actually moved and it is never considered illegal motion. Manning is a master at his position.

I have always wondered about the grading of officials. When the crews are graded out weekly and for the entire year, one crew finishes on top and one has to finish last. What happens to that crew? Are they reprimanded? Is there remediation done during the off-season? Are there certain members of the crew removed for sub-standard performance? As a fan, I am continually impressed with how many correct calls are made, even with instant replay. --Sam Natrop, Crystal Lake, Ill.

When the final crew grades are totaled at the end of the season, the difference between the top crew and the bottom crew could be as little as one percentage point. As in any profession where ratings are involved, someone has to be first and someone has to be last. All the crews work to improve their positions during the off-season, but as far as I know, all 17 crews met the performance standards to work in the National Football League. You are correct, the replay system shows how good the officiating is, game in and game out.

Was there a defining moment for you that made you want to become a refree? --Brad, Vancouver, B.C.

My high school football coach was an official in both high school and college. When I went away to the University of Illinois, he told me to try intermural football officiating. It was a wonderful feeling to see that the games were played fairly. That's when I decided that I would try to become a high school official after graduation. I spent 20 years working every level of football, and, finally, at 41, I applied to the National Football League. The rest, for me, is history. Thank you very much for this question.

Jerry, I understand that under NFL rules on any free kick, the receiving team has the option to call a fair catch and on the next play, may choose to make an unopposed free kick, where, if the ball goes through the uprights, they are awarded three points, as a field goal. Is this true and, if so, have you ever seen it? --Dan Parry, Palos Heights, Ill.

The free kick after fair catch option exists on all kick plays. This includes safety kicks, kickoffs, punts, and even drop kicks, which haven't been seen in abundance for over 50 years. On any of these kicks, a successful fair catch gives the receiver the option of putting the ball in play with a snap or having a free kick down with no defender allowed to rush the kick. No tee can be used on this fair catch kick, but if the ball goes through the uprights, a successful field goal is awarded. I have seen several free kick after fair catch, but none have been successful field goals.

In the Super Bowl, Indy is set to punt with 7 minutes plus on the clock and was called for delay of game. The clock starts running after it is placed again. So after a penalty, the Colts were able to run out the clock and then run even more time off of the clock. Theoretically they could have let the 25 second clock run out again. I believe that they could keep doing this until the 5:00 minute mark is reached. It seems like a disadvantage to the team that is losing and a ridiculous rule. I am surprised more teams don't take consecutive delays to burn up the clock. --Pete Wilton, Oakmont, Penn.

There is a section in the NFL rule book that is concerned with conserving or consuming time. The referee will take appropriate action if a situation such as yours were to occur after the first delay of game. He would announce that, contrary to the timing rule, the clock will start on the snap. No unfair situation like this is allowed.

Jerry, we always hear the the NFL should hire full-time officials, which I always felt they were anyway, with all of the time they put in. But has the NFL ever considered maybe hiring a crew full time (year round) and see if it would make any difference? My opinion is that it wouldn't. I was just curious to see if it was ever considered or even discussed. --Ron, Joplin, Mo.

Bravo!! As far as I'm concerned, the NFL officials are fully employed by the league for seven months of the year. They put more time into this difficult profession during the off-season and regular season than a regular job would require. The question of full-time officials has been raised over the years, but the NFL does not feel the necessity of doing so. The system presently employed works. Why fix it, if it isn't broken? I agree.

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GoldRush-BlackStripes
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MessageSujet: Re: L'échiquier vert (©Oleo) - Questions sur les règles du jeu   Ven 20 Avr - 14:26

J'ai une question un peu technique : comment est retransmise au niveau statistique une interception d'une transformation à deux points après un TD ? La relance est-elle possible ?
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MessageSujet: Re: L'échiquier vert (©Oleo) - Questions sur les règles du jeu   Ven 20 Avr - 14:34

GoldRush-BlackStripes a écrit:
J'ai une question un peu technique : comment est retransmise au niveau statistique une interception d'une transformation à deux points après un TD ? La relance est-elle possible ?

Non c'est juste que la transformation est manquée, ca ne rentrera dans les stats de personne, ni du défenseur, ni du QB...

Les transformations (hors XP pour les K) ne comptent pas dans les statistiques
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Double C
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MessageSujet: Re: L'échiquier vert (©Oleo) - Questions sur les règles du jeu   Ven 20 Avr - 14:34

A ma connaissance (et pour avoir eu le cas sur Madden ), pas de relance possible. La transformation est manquée et on va s'aligner pour le kickoff.

Et on attend ta question sur le quizz.

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MessageSujet: Re: L'échiquier vert (©Oleo) - Questions sur les règles du jeu   Ven 20 Avr - 14:40

j'ai une question
si un punt de dégagement passe entre les poteaux
les 3pt sont ils accordé?? (a madden il ne les accorde pas)
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MessageSujet: Re: L'échiquier vert (©Oleo) - Questions sur les règles du jeu   Ven 20 Avr - 14:49

superbowl41 a écrit:
j'ai une question
si un punt de dégagement passe entre les poteaux
les 3pt sont ils accordé?? (a madden il ne les accorde pas)

Non, c'est considéré comme un Touchback, et donc l'équipe adverse reprend sur ses 20yds, moi à Madden, je m'amusais à essayer de passer directement le kickoff entre les poteaux, ca rapporte rien, mais quand on voit, qu'ils arrivent à mettre l'équivalent d'un FG de 87yds
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MessageSujet: Re: L'échiquier vert (©Oleo) - Questions sur les règles du jeu   Ven 20 Avr - 14:57

Bonjour le coup de pied ! Elle existe l'option créatine dans Madden ?
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MessageSujet: Re: L'échiquier vert (©Oleo) - Questions sur les règles du jeu   Ven 20 Avr - 14:58

Krycek a écrit:
superbowl41 a écrit:
j'ai une question
si un punt de dégagement passe entre les poteaux
les 3pt sont ils accordé?? (a madden il ne les accorde pas)

Non, c'est considéré comme un Touchback, et donc l'équipe adverse reprend sur ses 20yds, moi à Madden, je m'amusais à essayer de passer directement le kickoff entre les poteaux, ca rapporte rien, mais quand on voit, qu'ils arrivent à mettre l'équivalent d'un FG de 87yds

perso j'y suis arriver qu'une seul fois c'était avec janikowski (sa doit pas s'écrire comme ca)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kRePfIu-avI
la je c pas comment il fait


sinon j'avais entendu dire que les patriots ont fait un coup de pied de transformation en drop alors pourquoi un put qui passe entre les poteaux ne peut pas etre concideré comme un drop
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MessageSujet: Re: L'échiquier vert (©Oleo) - Questions sur les règles du jeu   Ven 20 Avr - 14:58

GoldRush-BlackStripes a écrit:
Bonjour le coup de pied ! Elle existe l'option créatine dans Madden ?

En même temps, ils partent lancés, ils ont pas la pression d'être bloqués, et c'était quand j'avais un bon vent dans le dos...
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MessageSujet: Re: L'échiquier vert (©Oleo) - Questions sur les règles du jeu   Ven 20 Avr - 15:00

superbowl41 a écrit:
Krycek a écrit:
superbowl41 a écrit:
j'ai une question
si un punt de dégagement passe entre les poteaux
les 3pt sont ils accordé?? (a madden il ne les accorde pas)

Non, c'est considéré comme un Touchback, et donc l'équipe adverse reprend sur ses 20yds, moi à Madden, je m'amusais à essayer de passer directement le kickoff entre les poteaux, ca rapporte rien, mais quand on voit, qu'ils arrivent à mettre l'équivalent d'un FG de 87yds

perso j'y suis arriver qu'une seul fois c'était avec janikowski (sa doit pas s'écrire comme ca)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kRePfIu-avI
la je c pas comment il fait


sinon j'avais entendu dire que les patriots ont fait un coup de pied de transformation en drop alors pourquoi un put qui passe entre les poteaux ne peut pas etre concideré comme un drop

Parce que déjà, un Drop doit toucher le sol avant d'être frappé, alors que le Punt ne le touche pas, ensuite, Flutie qui avait transformé le drop était dans une formation de transformation, or je sais pas si on a le droit de tenter un Drop si on est pas dans une certaine formation ?
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MessageSujet: Re: L'échiquier vert (©Oleo) - Questions sur les règles du jeu   Ven 20 Avr - 15:01

Pour madden pas bien compliqué... tu mets Kick Power à 99 dans les sliders... tu créé un K à 99 de power... et avec un bon vent de dos et une bonne barre de bloquée nickel tu fais tranquille le terrain sur un kick.
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MessageSujet: Re: L'échiquier vert (©Oleo) - Questions sur les règles du jeu   Ven 20 Avr - 15:07

superbowl41 a écrit:
sinon j'avais entendu dire que les patriots ont fait un coup de pied de transformation en drop alors pourquoi un put qui passe entre les poteaux ne peut pas etre concideré comme un drop
Il doit y avoir un point de règlement qui dit que le ballon doit toucher le sol, je pense. Je me demande d'ailleurs si Markbreit n'en a pas parlé dans un des Q&A (à l'époque du drop-kick de Flutie, jsutement) cités sur ce topic. Bonne recherche.

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Dernière édition par le Ven 20 Avr - 15:09, édité 1 fois
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superbowl41
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MessageSujet: Re: L'échiquier vert (©Oleo) - Questions sur les règles du jeu   Ven 20 Avr - 15:08

en passant
les drop au rugby doivent aussi touché le sol pour etre validé?
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